There are six major theoretical models used to explain how human development evolves. The Biological Model looks for organic causes to cognitive, learning, and behavioral disorders and uses medication for treatment. The Behavioral Model is observable and measurable. It uses positive reinforcement to obtain desired behavior. The Social Model focuses on modeling and combines behavior and cognitive models to figure out how people learn from their environments. The Ecological Model believes that interactions within the environment and social circles influence behavior and learning process. The Developmental Model looks at development through predetermined developmental stages. The Psychodynamic Model focuses on the unconscious and believes that the environment affects the thought process which develops personality. Each of these theories has strengths and weaknesses when working with students who have special needs.
Biological and Behavioral Models
The Biological Model along with the Behavioral Model has gained the most support out of the five models because they can be validated (GCU, 2010). Both of these models use methods that are observable and measurable therefore identifying causes and effects of behavior. The Biological Model looks for organic causes such as pathogens that cause disease; neurological, neurobiological, neurochemical, chromosomal, gene, and congenital abnormalities; and brain damage as factors for causing behavioral, cognitive, and learning disorders (Wheeler & Dean, 2010 p. 4-6). Medication is used to treat the disorders found.
The Behavioral Model focuses on consequences of actions. This model studies the interactions of the environment with the outcome of behavior. A person is more likely to repeat actions that obtain positive consequence or reinforcement while they are more likely not to produce as many actions that... [continues]
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