III.2. SITE SELECTION
When considering a location for a plant generally, or a chemical plant in specific, few factors have to be taken into account. The factors are transportation, geographical and location consideration, leasing or selling price, environmental & social impact, and availability of expert and professional human resource.
Site Selectivity Factors
Transportation. In order to ensure that no disruptions occur in terms of the transportation of raw material, the plant should be located to the nearest raw material manufacturer. In this case, we are in favour of locating the benzoic acid plant near any toulene-producing factory, whether the transportation is made via sea or land. The transportation is also needed to be recognized its possibilities and limitations, e.g. schedule of journey, route taken to reach plant from manufacturers’ factory, time duration of journey, safety precaution whilst transporting the raw materials, etc. The site also should be located where paved roads are available. This is important as transportation of raw material can be delayed due to flood, inaccessible unpaved roads and others.
Geographical and Location Consideration. In terms of geographical aspect, the prospective site also should consider many factors in order to build an ideal benzoic acid plant. The appropriate kind of land and soil should be chosen. We would want to avoid abandoned land once was a pond or a very low area where flash flood can easily occur. The land should be firm enough to withstand a large-scale industrial activity, and an investigation should be carried out to make sure that the nearby area is not proned to air and water deterioration or landslides.
Leasing or Selling Price. On the other hand, the ideal kind of land is also preferred to be rented or sold with reasonable price. For example, the industrial area near Kuantan port and Kemaman is approximately RM9.60 per square feet rather than more developed town areas like Klang or Petaling Jaya in Selangor which are far more expensive. This can be explained by how the area expands over the years. Even though we have quick access to urban area, the very high price is not how we would want to optimized our profit, while we have other options with so much lower price.
Environmental Impact. The emission of various gases from our flare or chemicals used should be recognized, and the toxicology should be well-studied, in case there are accidents that could involve rapid dispersion of vapour cloud to nearby area. The plant should be built as far as possible from residential area. This is because if any incident happens, the evacuation can be done in a short duration of time in isolated area.
Social Impact. There are two possible options available for our site to be located in; rural or urban area. These options can influence the local town economically or socially. The industry can trigger other construction of other landmarks like schools and shops. The population will also increase over time. In rural area, for instance, can be rapidly developed once this plant is built because it will encourage more business around town and with the construction of this plant, many investors will eye other opportunities and profits around the factory by building commercial area. Other than that, the new plant can provide job opportunities ranging from full-skilled to non-skilled workers.
Expert and Professional Human Resource. Professional workers such as engineers are very scarce. Even though if there are candidates, the probability to have very good quality candidates from the rural area are no better compared with urban area, where most educated people prefer. On the other hand, if we opt for urban area, other than it enhance the economic activities, we would have better candidates for professional workers who are willing to work near towns or developed areas. But, bear in mind that factors mentioned above that urban area...
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