Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model
Sister Callista Roy was born in Los Angeles in 1939 (Tomey, 2005). Roy is a Sister of St. Joseph of Carondvet (Tomey, 2005). She earned a Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing at Mount ST. Mary’s College (Tomey, 2005). She later earned two Masters Degrees in Pediatric Nursing and Sociology (Tomey, 2005). In 1977, Roy completed a Doctoral Degree in Sociology (Tomey, 2005).
Sister Callista Roy during her career has held different positions in healthcare. She worked as a staff nurse, held administrative positions, and as faculty of St. Mary’s College (Tomey, 2005). Roy served as Department Chair at St. Mary’s College in 1971 thru 1982 (Tomey, 2005).
Roy has also done work in developing Nursing Programs. At the University of Portland, she helped in creating a Nurses Master’s Program (Tomey, 2005). She helped with the development of a PhD Nursing Program at Connell School of Nursing (Tomey, 2005). Roy has also visited schools around the world as a visiting Professor (Tomey, 2005). In 2003, Roy was on the board of International Network for Doctorial Education (Tomey, 2005).
Besides her achievements in education, Roy has published over 100 publications (Tomey, 2005). Many of her books have been translated into several different languages (Tomey, 2005). She has four Honorary Doctoral Degrees, and several teaching awards (Tomey, 2005). Roy has won national awards from the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association and the National League of Nursing (Tomey, 2005). Roy was named Living Legend by the American Academy of Nursing (Tomey, 2005). She was inducted to Nurse Researcher Hall of Fame, Inaugural Class of Sigma Theta Tau International (Barone, 2011).
Sister Callista Roy began developing her Adaptation Model in 1964, based on the encouragement of Dorothy Johnson (Ross, 1990). Dorothy Johnson challenged Roy to develop a conceptual model for practicing nursing (Ross, 1990). Roy’s Model is influenced greatly by Harry Helson, physiologic psychiatrist (Roy, 1990). The Roy Adaptation Model was first published in 1970 (Phillips, 2010). Since that time, the Model has been continuously refined by Roy (Phillips, 2010).
The Roy Adaptation Model is based on the person being a holistic adaptive system that constantly interacts with the environment internally and externally (Phillips, 2010).The human being is viewed as a biophysicosocial being (Roy, 1999). According to Roy, adaptation is a process and outcome where individuals use conscious awareness and choice to create human and environmental integrations (Roy, 1999).This Model of Adaptation concentrates on adaptation leading to excellent health, well-being, and a dignified death (Roy, 1999).
Roy’s Model has three concepts, the human being, adaptation, and nursing (Ross, 1990). The person is viewed as continually interacting with the environment with the goal being adaptation (Ross, 1990). Roy describes the human as a whole with parts that function as a unit (Roy, 1999). The environment refers to all conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the development of a person (Roy, 1999). Some factors that influence the development of a person are family, education, religious background, mentors, and clinical experiences (Ross, 1990).
The environment has three components: focal stimuli, contextual stimuli, and residual stimuli (Ross, 1990). Focal stimuli are those that immediately occur in a certain situation (Ross, 1990). Contextual stimuli influence the situation (Ross, 1990). Residual stimuli are the beliefs or attitude that might influence the situation (Ross, 1990).
Health and nursing are important to adaptation. Health is a process or state of being and becoming an integrated whole (Roy, 1999). Adaption and nursing occurs by nurses having the goal of promoting adaptation for individuals (Roy, 1999).
Adaptation happens when the total stimuli are within the...