Sister Calista Roys Adaptation Theory

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Grand theories are often developed from conceptual models and are the most complex and large in scope of the levels of theory. Grand theories attempt to explain very broad issues within a discipline. They are composed of abstract concepts and usually lack operational definitions, their propositions are abstract and not easily amendable to testing. Grand theories are developed through the evaluation and appraisal of existing ideas, as opposed to empirical research, and often incorporates the concepts of other theories. Grand nursing theories serve to guide research as well as assist scholars in integrating the findings of other investigations and research in order to apply the knowledge gained to education, practice and administration (Wills, 2007). Grand theories also provide a base of philosophical reasoning in which to assist nurse scientists in developing an organized theory for research and/or practice, also referred to as a middle range theory (Wills, 2007). They share a common goal of providing understanding of key concepts and principals within a nursing perspective. The focus of this paper is on Sister Callista Roy’s grand theory of adaptation and her conceptual model: Roy’s Adaptation Model. The concepts, assumptions, and values she proposed will be explored. A reflection of Fawcett’s world views as they relate to Roy’s theory will be examined while also reflecting on the influence of logical positivism and Feminism. Finally, an evaluation of the human phenomenon of depression due to chronic heart failure as it would be viewed and addressed from Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Theory will be examined. Roy’s approach, being integrative and cumulative suggests knowledge is generated within a multidisciplinary perspective and not as opposite paradigms. Unity in diversity and the existence of universal truths, Roy’s two central ideas have major implications in the intermingling of knowledge gained through multiple perspectives. Roy’s Grand Theory

Roy’s adaptation theory is considered a grand theory because it is less universal than the philosophies, but comprehensive in that the theory provides structure for all that view the interest of humans, environment, health, and propositional direction for the profession in a scientific field. Sister Callista Roy’s adaptation model (RAM) focuses on the interrelatedness of four adaptive systems, inherent in human beings, as they utilize coping processes to deal/adapt to stress in an attempt to obtain wellness. It is a deductive theory based on nursing practice. The RAM serves to guide nurses who are interested in physiologic adaptation, as well as those who are interested in psychosocial adaptation. The RAM, first published in 1970, describes the person or group as an adaptive system with internal processes for coping with change (Roy & Hanna, 2001). The elements of the model include: the coping processes of the regulator and cognator for the individual and the stabilizer and innovator for groups; the adaptive modes of physiologic-physical, self-concept-group identity, role function, and interdependence (Pollock, et al., 1994). Other elements of the model include, the environment, defined as all conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding and affecting the development and behavior of persons and groups with particular consideration of mutuality of person and earth resources that can be classified as focal, contextual, and residual stimuli; and health seen as a state or process of being and becoming both integrated and whole that reflects person and environment mutuality and depends on adaptation (Roy, et al., 2008). Adaptation is defined as the process and outcome whereby thinking and feeling persons, as individuals and in groups, use conscious awareness and choice to create human and environmental integration (Roy, et. al., 2008). Adaptation is described on three levels of the life processes as integrated, compensatory,...
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