This is a paper on Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model (RAM). I will discuss the basis of the theory which is to view the person as an adaptive system. The ability of a person to adapt to internal and external stimuli and the effects of the following three classes of stimuli: focal, contextual and residual. This overview will discuss how the theory defines and describes a person, environment, health, nursing and the goal of nursing. A patient scenario will be provided and the model applied that shows the essence of Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Module.
Sister Callista Roy's Adaptation Theory
Sister Callista Roy, a member of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Carondelet, was born on October 13, 1939, in Los Angeles, California. She received a bachelor’s degree in nursing in 1963 from Mount Saint Mary’s College in Los Angeles and a master’s degree in nursing from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1966. After earning her nursing degree, Roy began her education in sociology, receiving both a master’s degree in sociology in 1973 and a doctorate in sociology in 1977 from the University of California (Alligood, 2010). While working toward her master’s degree, Roy had noticed the great resiliency of children and their ability to adapt in response to major physical and psychological changes. Roy was impressed by adaptation as an appropriate conceptual framework for nursing. Roy developed the basic concepts of the model while she was a graduate student at the University of California, Los Angeles, from 1964 to 1966. Roy began operationalizing her model in 1968 when Mount Saint Mary’s College adopted the adaptation framework as the philosophical foundation of the nursing curriculum. The Roy Adaptation Model was first presented in the literature in an article published in Nursing Outlook in 1970 entitled “Adaptation: A Conceptual Framework for Nursing” (Alligood, 2010). Roy was an associate professor and chairperson of the Department of Nursing at Mount Saint Mary’s College until 1982. She was promoted to the rank of professor in 1983 at both Mount Saint Mary’s College and the University of Portland. She helped initiate and taught in a summer master’s program at the University of Portland. From 1983 to 1985, she was a Robert Wood Johnson postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, San Francisco, as a clinical nurse scholar in neuroscience. During this time, she conducted research on nursing interventions for cognitive recovery in head injuries and on the influence of nursing models on clinical decision making. In 1987, Roy began the newly created position of nurse theorist at Boston College School of Nursing. Roy has published many books, chapters, and periodical articles and has presented numerous lectures and workshops focusing on her nursing adaptation theory (Alligood, 2010). Overview of Adaptation Model
The Roy Adaptation Model applies the two concepts of systems and adaptation to nursing practice. In the context of Roy’s work, the term system refers to a grouping of units that are related and connected, thus forming a unified whole. (A system may be an individual, family, group, community, or society.) Adaptation refers to effective coping mechanisms that promote integrity for a person, or group of persons, in terms of survival, growth, reproduction and mastery. In general, Roy asserts that a person is a biophysical being (or system) in constant interaction with a changing environment and that a person has four different modes of adaptation. A internal and external environmental changes occur, needs change that may result in the necessity for active copying to restore integrity. Each client system (either person or group) has a zone that surrounds a variable level of adaptation. Stimuli that fall within the zone of adaptation result in positive adaptations that support integrity. Stimuli that fall outside the zone will...