Sino-American Business Negotiations: a Cross-Cultural Perspective

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Sino-American Business Negotiations: A Cross-cultural Perspective  

Contents

 
Abstract3
内容摘要5
Acknowledgements6
Chapter I How Negotiations Work: An Overview7
1.1 Concept of Negotiation7
1.2 Major Elements of Negotiation8
1.2.1 Interests9
1.2.2 Power (Bargaining Strength)10
1.2.3 Strategy11
1.3 The Cross-cultural Negotiation Process12
Chapter II Culture and its Impacts on Negotiations15
2.1 Understanding Culture15
2.1.1 Definition of Culture15
2.1.2 Characteristics of Culture16
2.1.3 Cultural Orientations19
2.1.4. Deep Structure of Culture20
2.2 General Impacts of Culture on Business Negotiations26
2.2.1 Influences Exerted by Cultural Differences26
2.2.2 Consequences Caused by Cultural Differences27
Chapter III Sino-American Negotiating Styles: A Cross-cultural Perspective30 3.1 Negotiating Goal31
3.2 Emphasis on Protocol35
3.3 Communication38
3.4 Sensitivity to Time40
3.5 Emotionalism43
3.6 Form of Agreement45
3.7 Decision-making49
3.8 Willingness to Take Risks51
Chapter IV Conclusion and Recommendations for Chinese Negotiators55 4.1 Potential Problems in Intercultural Business Negotiations55 4.1.1 Stereotypes56
4.1.2 Ethnocentrism57
4.1.3 Prejudice58
4.2 Recommendations for Chinese Negotiators58
4.2.1 Cultivating Cultural Awareness and Sensitivity58
4.2.2 Making sufficient preparations60
4.2.3 Having a Good Command of the Target Language60
4.2.4 Laying Great Emphasis on Non-verbal Communications61
Bibliography:63
 

 

Abstract

 
With the emergence of a global economy and China’s WTO entry, China has witnessed a sharp increase in foreign investment and numerous China-based firms into the international market. So far as Chinese businesspersons are concerned, at no time in history has there been so great a need for international negotiating skills. Nevertheless, what makes one a good negotiator in one culture may not work well in another, because negotiation rules and practices vary notably across cultures. The greater the cultural differences, the larger barriers to communication, and the more likely distortion of the negotiation. To negotiate successfully, cultural differences between the parties concerned must be identified and bridged. The thesis is a comparative study of the different types of Sino-American business negotiating styles. There are many factors contributing to a certain type of negotiating style, but cultural system may be one of the most important. Efforts in the thesis are devoted to exploring the underlying cultural factors behind the distinctions of these negotiating styles. The objective is to improve the knowledge and understanding of negotiation-related cultural differences and furnish some recommendations for Chinese negotiators involved in Sino-American business negotiations. The thesis consists of four parts.

With a view to better understanding international business negotiation, Chapter one briefs the fundamental knowledge of negotiations, including its definition, its basic elements and the cross-cultural negotiation process. To navigate through the minefield of Sino-American business negotiations requires a full apprehension of culture and its relevant factors. In Chapter two, therefore, the major elements of culture, including its concept, its characteristics, cultural orientations and its deep structure are first dealt with, and then the impact of culture on business negotiations. The great diversity of culture makes it difficult for negotiators to fully understand the culture differences between China and America and then an approach that helps Chinese negotiators overcome the differences in making their deal is proposed to identify the specific ways in which cultural traits affect the negotiating process. Eight factors that affect negotiating styles, accordingly, are provided in Chapter Three and then by using these factors as parameters a comparative...
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