Simple and Fractional Distillation of a Binary Mixture

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  • Topic: Distillation, Vapor pressure, Vapor-liquid equilibrium
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Experiment 1: Simple and Fractional Distillation of a Binary Mixture

Introduction:
In this experiment the aim is to separate two chemicals from a stock mixture (azeotrope) using two different distillation processes. In both methods (simple and fractional) the liquids reach a boiling point, the molecules then vaporize, separate from the stock mixture and then condense back into liquid form down the to the receiver. Simple distillation works well when the two components boiling points have a large difference. Fractional distillation works best when the components boiling points have a small difference. The boiling point of cyclohexane is 80 degrees Celsius. Toluenes boiling point is about 110 degrees Celsius. The liquid with a higher vapor pressure is higher in concentration and would be collected first. Raoult’s law states: the vapor pressure of an ideal solution is dependent on the vapor pressure of each chemical component and the mole fraction of the component present in the solution. Dalton’s Law states: that the total pressure exerted by the mixture of non-reactive gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of individual gases.

Experimental:
Simple Distillation:Fractional Distillation:

Table of Chemicals:
-Cyclohexane
-Toluene

Results:
Simple Distillation

|Toluene |
|Drops |Degrees |
| |Celsius |
|0 |62( |
|5 |69( |
|10 |74( |
|15 |77( |
|20 |77( |
|25 |78( |
|30 |79( |
|35 |81( |
|40 |83( |
|45 |83( |
|50 |84( |
|55 |85( |
|60 |85( |
|65 |85( |
|70 |86( |
|75 |85( |
|80 |83( |
|85 |81( |
|Cyclohexane |
|Drops |Degrees |
| |Celsius |
|0 |19( |
|5 |63( |
|10 |70( |
|15 |71( |
|20 |71( |
|25 |72( |
|30 |73( |
|35 |73( |
|40 |74( |
|45 |73( |
|50 |73( |
|55 |72( |
|60 |72( |
|65 |72( |
|70 |71( |
|75 |70( |
|80 |69( |
|85 |67( |
|90 |64( |
|95 |62( |

Total collected: Cyclohexane 3.4ml
Toluene 3.4 ml
% Recovery for both: 3.4/3.5 x 100 = 97.14%

Fractional Distillation

|Drops |Degrees Celsius |
| |Cyclohexane |Toluene |
|0 |57( |75( |
|5 |62( |77( |
|10 |64( |82( |
|15 |65( |86( |
|20 |66( |91( |
|25 |67( |93( |
|30 |67( |95( |
|35 |68( |96( |
|40 |68( |97( |
|45 |69( |97( |
|50 |69( |99( |
|55 |69( |99( |
|60 |69( |99( |
|65 |69( |100( |
|70 |70( |100( |
|75 |70( |99( |
|80 |71( |99( |
|85 |73( |-...
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