Significance of Nanotechnology in Construction Engineering
Ashwani K. Rana1, Shashi B Rana2, Anjna Kumari3 and Vaishnav Kiran4 National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur (H.P), India Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Regional Campus G.N.D.U. Gurdaspur, Punjab, India Emails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com, 1, 3, 4
Abstract— Nanotechnology is one of the most active research areas that encompass a number of disciplines including civil engineering and construction materials. Traditionally, nanotechnology has been concerned with developments in the fields of microelectronics, medicine and materials sciences. However, the potential for application of many of the developments in the nanotechnology field in the area of construction engineering is growing. In this paper a broad overview of the potential application of various nanotechnology developments in the construction engineering field is discussed, and the potential for further basic research that may lead to improved systems is evaluated. Index Terms- Nanomaterials, Construction.
I. INTRODUCTION Nanotechnology is a field that is dominated by developments in basic physics and chemistry research , where phenomena on atomic and molecular level are used to provide materials and structures that perform tasks that are not possible using the materials in their typical macroscopic form. The evolution of technology and instrumentation as well as its related scientific areas such as physics and chemistry are making the research on nanotechnology aggressive and evolutional . Not surprisingly, it is observed that expenditure on nanotechnology research is significant. The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) expenditures exceed $1 billion each year, with the President’s 2008 budget for NNI at $1.5 billion. However, the research is mainly moving forward motivated by immediate profitable return generated by high value commercial products . It has been established by study, nanotechnology in construction ranked 8 of 10 applications that most likely have impact in the developing world . Nanotechnology covers the design, construction and utilization of functional structures with at least one characteristic dimension measured in nanometers . The field of nanotechnology has developed in major leaps during the past 10 years. These developments were mainly driven by factors such as dedicated initiatives in the field (e.g. the National Nanotechnology Initiative) , Ashwani K. Rana is with Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, NIT Hamirpur, India Shashi B Rana is with Department of Electronics Technology, G.N.D.U. Regional Campus Gurdaspur, Punjab, India Anjna Kumari and Vaishnav Kiran are with Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, NIT Hamirpur, India
improvements in characterization equipment and a new understanding into the chemistry and physics of matter on the nanoscale. Nanoscale science can be divided into three broad areas, e.g. nanostructures, nanofabrication and nanocharacterization with typical applications in nanoelectronics and life sciences & energy . This article examines the potential areas where nanotechnology can benefit construction engineering. The data and information collected is from current literature. The purpose is to point out clear cut direction among the nanotechnology development areas where the construction process would immediately harness nanotechnology, by specifying clear recommendations. The information would be beneficial to both construction engineering education and research. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II, detailed applications of nanotechnogy in construction engineering/industry are presented. Section III, presents the future challenges and directions. Finally, concluding remarks are offered in Section IV. II. APPLICATION...