The line integral of the magnetic flux around a closed curve is proportional to the algebraic sum of electric currents flowing through that closed curve; or, in differential form curl B = J. This was later modified to add a second term when it was incorporated into Maxwell's equations.

Archimedes' Principle

A body that is submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid that is displaced, and directed upward along a line through the center of gravity of the displaced fluid.

Bernoulli's Equation

In an irrotational fluid, the sum of the static pressure, the weight of the fluid per unit mass times the height, and half the density times the velocity squared is constant throughout the fluid.

Biot-Savart Law

A law which describes the contributions to a magnetic field by an electric current. It is analogous toCoulomb's law.

Centrifugal Pseudoforce

A pseudoforce on an object when it is moving in uniform circular motion. The "force" is directed outward from the center of motion.

Charles' Law (1787)

The volume of an ideal gas at constant pressure is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature of that gas.

Dalton's Law of partial pressures

The total pressure of a mixture of ideal gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its components; that is, the sum of the pressures that each component would exert if it were present alone and occupied the same volume as the mixture.

Doppler Effect

Waves emitted by a moving object as received by an observer will be blueshifted (compressed) if approaching, redshifted (elongated) if receding. It occurs both in sound as well as electromagnetic phenomena.

Einstein Field Equation

The cornerstone of Einstein's general theory of relativity, relating the gravitational tensor G to the stress-energy tensor T by the simple equation G = 8 pi T.

Einstein's Mass-Energy Equation

The energy E of a particle is equal to its mass M times the...

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