Should the Unsc Be Reformed

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The reform of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has been of interest for a number of years and remains a significant topic. As one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, the Security Council is responsible for maintaining international peace and security (UN Charter: art. 24.1). Over the years, the Security Council has worked to achieve their primary purpose of upholding international peace and security however it continues to be a symbol of a reality of global powers from 60 years ago and not today. It is becoming out of step with the realities of the world and as new rising powers begin to emerge a better representation of the Security Council is needed. This essay will critically argue why the United Nations Security Council should be reformed and will provide solutions as to how reformation can be achieved. Established under the UN Charter, as one of the six principal organs the Security Council, held its first session on the 17th of January 1946 at Church House, Westminster, London. According to the UN Charter, the Security Council’s main purpose is to maintain peace and international security (UN Charter: art. 24.1).Although the Security Council has played its part, its lack of change continues to be a point of issue. The current Security Council is a snapshot in time from the late 1940s, it has failed to keep up with the geopolitical development of the world and this is why a reform is needed. In order to consider reforming the Security Council a key issue to be looked at is the lack of representation in the Council. Since its inception of 1946, the Security Council permanent members (known as the P5: United States of America, Britain, France, China and Russia) have remained identical. It has been said that the P5 membership “reflects the power relations of 1945, not 2004” (New York Times, 7 December 2004). The matter of geopolitical representation in the Security Council is a critical concern as it brings into question the legitimacy, the effectiveness and the democratic nature of the body. Expansion of membership would be ideal within the Security Council as it is currently “a reflection of the constellation of powers of the end of World War II, which diminishes its legitimacy” (Daniel Trachsler, 2010). Allocating new seats to four main regional areas; Africa, Asia, Pacific and Americas would be a regarded as a fair representation. The G4 nations (Brazil, India, German and Japan) are regarded as the strongest contenders to be considered part of the Security Council, permanent members. More specifically, India and Brazil have pushed to be part of the permanent members. As the world’s largest democracy, the second most populous nation as well as a nuclear power, India would be a key permanent member. Brazil on the other hand, is the largest, most populous and most prosperous nation in Latin America. Incorporating Brazil and India would put two representatives from the “Global South” permanently on the Security Council. (Ed Hancox, 2012) Africa has also called for its share of power when it comes to reformation. It has requested that its largest Union, the African Union have a permanent seat on the UNSC along with one more permanent seat and two other non-permanent seats. Africa is the continent which has required the most UN assistance in the past and should have a seat on the Security Council. “The African Union (AU) with its 53 members tabled the third proposal. The AU demands better representation for Africa” (Trachsler, 2010). By including India, Brazil and an African country as part of the Security Council permanent members, the body would represent a fair depiction of today’s current geopolitical development. The right of permanent members to veto proposed resolutions is a subject that continues to be a main concern. Achieving world order and peace, since its establishment, has been at the core of UNSC ideals. Successful achievement of such ideals has however in recent years eluded...
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