What is surrogacy? Surrogacy is where a ‘woman who bears a child on behalf of a couple unable to have a child, either by artificial insemination from the man or implantation of an embryo’ (Collins English Dictionary, 2008). This is usually because the wife is infertile or otherwise unable to undergo pregnancy. As mentioned by Rogers, (2006) surrogacy can be also said as a woman which is also similarly known as the surrogate mother or the surrogate will be carrying and delivering a baby whom by undergoing a controversial process which is mostly illegal in all the states after an official arrangement between the surrogate and the intended couple or individual. The history of commercial surrogacy started in the US in the late 70's in the twentieth century when a lawyer named Noel Keane started to create the first agency of surrogacy. He defied the legislative power in Michigan and after that he decided to move to open additional agencies where he carried out surrogacy arrangements laws (SYL, 2006) There are two types of surrogacy which is traditional surrogacy and gestational surrogacy. According to COTS (2007), for traditional surrogacy, the surrogate uses her own egg fertilized with the intended father's sperm whereas for the gestational surrogacy, the surrogate carries the intended parent's genetic child conceived through in-vitro-fertilization, for which specialist doctors are needed and for this treatment the infertile woman must still have working ovaries.
Despite the advantages of surrogacy, for many years there are still numerous people tend to argue that surrogacy brings many disadvantages. Even though many people believe that surrogacy should be legalized especially for couples who cannot have children, I think it should not be encouraged due to a number of negative repercussions.
The first argument put forward by the opponents is that, surrogacy may be the best option since it provides an intended couple to parent a child genetically related to them that otherwise could not have a child on their own. On the other hand, surrogacy is not the only solution for a couple with infertility but there are many other solutions also for them to overcome this problem. One of the ways beside surrogacy is In Vitro Fertilization which also known as IVF. Why IVF? This is because, IVF has the obvious benefit of boosting the chances for couple with infertility of getting pregnant, sometimes from a near zero probability of pregnancy (eHow, 1999a). Moreover, in a recent study which states that ‘nearly 1,000 European children who were conceived through in vitro fertilization and monitored from birth until age 5 were shown to be as healthy as children who were conceived naturally’ (Einstein Industries, 2008). Thus, there will be no problem for couples with infertility to have IVF as an alternative. Besides that, adoption can also be another alternative way apart from surrogacy. Many people who are unable to have a child on their own, usually, they desire to adopt a child. There are thousands of children who have withstood neglect or abuse waiting to be adopted. As what is stated by Brotherton (2009), the couples with infertility can guarantee the child will benefit by having security and safety that they may not have known before by opening their heart and home through adopting. This is because, the adoptive parents need not think about the expenses for the child’s need, because there are financial benefits to help them secure in their life. She also mentioned that they will be eligible for state and federal tax benefits as well. Thus, surrogacy is not the only way which provides the children for an intended parent couple, but there are many other alternatives like IVF and adoption where can help men and women to capture the dream of parenthood.
Another advantage that can be clearly seen as stated by Rodriguez (1999), is surrogacy...