Table of Contents
1. Abstract of this research paper.
2. What is genetic engineering？
3. What kinds of ethical problems are there?
4. Freedom of scholarship.
5. Innovative remedy for obstinate diseases.
6. Solutions for ethical problems.
7. Conclusion including my prospects.
Abstract of the research paper
“Should genetic engineering be controlled by law?”
I chose this topic because I used to study medicine at my former
university. And I’m also thinking of studying biology at HPU, so I felt
I have to write something about this topic. Need I say more? It is a
fundamental problem related to what we are.
The genetic engineering always carries lots of ethical problems.
Especially, when it comes to embryonic stem cells(ESCs) which are provided
from abortion. Ethicists rage about the treatment of aborted embryos. But
in the last several years, researchers succeeded in creating alike
omnipotent cells, to say precisely, pluripotent cells in different ways.
But fundamental problems have not been solved yet. This is because most
of the problems are based on religious culture and basic morality.
In this research paper, I would like to focus on animal and human related
genetic engineering. I believe that to argue so many things in one paper
will not only confuse the reader but also lead to lack of coherence. Of
course, I will mention plants and vegetation, if needed.
We are now facing a step further problem, which is about applying these technologies to human beings and medicine for cure. Already some of the
research institutes have created clone sheep, clone dogs and so on. Can
we apply these technologies to our babies or ourselves? We have been and
are facing a big ethical issue.
[Actually, the communion Raelian announced that they have succeeded in
cloning human beings in 2002, but we do not know about the reliability.]
I would like to write a research paper in like an argumentative essay.
I do not know whether I can conclude in solution to these ethical problems
but I have my opinion to the regulation and to the law enforcement toward
In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase confirmed DNA’s role as
Next year, biologist James Watson and biophysicists Francis Crick and
Maurice Wilkins found out physical hereditary system in human beings. This
was named deoxyribonucleic acid from its structure. This discovery was the
breakthrough not only in biological discipline but in physics,
biochemistry, medicine and so on. This theory is now known for double helix.
We started to call DNA’s organized structure as chromosomes and to call
hereditary part of DNA as Genes or Genomes. “Social Issues in America,”
describes in the book that“Genes contain instructions for creating
proteins and enzymes that controls the metabolism of cells.” (Social
Issues in America: An Encyclopedia p.755)
In 1970s, the new technologies were put into the genetics. The technology
led us to analyze the operation between genes and cell itself. This was
the beginning of the modern genetic engineering. In this period,
researchers used full technologies they had and succeeded in creating human
insulin in yeast cells. However, nobody thought this was a violation to
the natural law at this time.
But when it became to the application of these technologies to human
beings themselves or animals, the ethicists and the public began to think
these technologies as threat to the natural law or to the God’s privilege.
Some people even recollected the eugenics in Nazi.
And the advent of embryonic stem cells made situation worse....