Shot Putt Biomechanics

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Projectile Motion (Summary)
• A projectile is an object in free fall: subject to gravity and air resistance • In this context, we will ignore the effects of air resistance; sometimes, this is not a good idea • When air resistance is ignored, projectiles are a good example of constant acceleration • Projectile position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration can be better understood using the equations of constant acceleration

More Application…
How do actual release angles compare to theoretical optima?
Shot Put:
• Positive height of release, so optimal angle should be slightly lower than 45 • Theoretically optimal angle is about 40-41
• Skilled shot-putters use angles of 31-36
• Close, but why the discrepancy?

What is most important?
What about angle of release?
When height of release is 0 m, optimal angle for maximum dx is 45 As height of release , optimal angle 
dx = vx × t
dX is most sensitive to speed of release…
dx = vx × t
Speed of release can positively affect vX and t
What are the performance-related implications of this information?

Some Application
So, what kinematic factors can be manipulated to influence horizontal displacement, or range, of a projectile? What is most important? Relative Height of Release- The release height is the second most important factor while shot putting. It is directly related with the thrower height, but also with the throwing technique. Julio Bravo (2000) stated that the difference between the release height of the throw and the height of the thrower is of around 11% for men and 9% for women. Speed of Release- The goal of every thrower is to achieve the maximum release speed of the implement. To get it the shot putter should perform the longest putting trajectory, in order to have more time to increase the acceleration of the shot. Angle of Release- Particularly the optimal angle of release has been studied deeply, coming to the conclusion that is between 37 – 38º. It depends on the...
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