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NR.1
The properties of language.
Us interests only those properties that separate our language from other communication systems. Features of a six properties;
1. Displacement - man is capable of producing a displaced speech, that is speech that is not only part of situation eg. Lankiausi teatre ( pasakymas susijes su siuo metu, bet as ten buvau anksciau). Only man is able to do that and the animals are not capable to displace speech. Sounds they produce are related to the moment of utterance and situation wholes to the present only (eg. dog says "grrr...", it is likely to mean "grrr" right now, not about yesterday. Displacement allows to talk about things an and events not present now. Animal's communication lacks this property (but there are some exceptions). Some people say that bee's communication does have the property of displacement. Eg. Kai bite darbininke randa nektara, ji atlieka tam tikra soki kad galetu pranesti kitoms apie tai. Depending on the dance type (round or ragtail dance) the other bees can decide wher this nectar is situated. This ability of the bees to indicate a location some distance away must mean that bee communication has at least some degree of displacement. Bee communication has displacement in an extremely limited form. The bee can direct other bees to a food source but it must be the most recent source. This property of language enables us to talk about the things and places of whose exitance we are not even sure ( demons, fairies, angels), we can speak about such characters as superman. This property helps us to create fiction and describe possible future world. 2. Arbitrariness (sutartinumas) - sakysime taip, o ne kitaip. Pvz.: anglai susitaria kad "dog" yra "suo". This feature means that there is not natural relation between form, sound and meaning. Words that imitate sounds asociated with objects are not common. The vast majority of linguistic expressions are option (sutartine). 3. Productivity / Creativity - it is the property of all languages, which means that speakers produce or continually form new utterances. Speaking of non-human communication systems, they have not got such flexibility. (Jie nemoka jungti garsu). The animals produces 36 sounds. 4. Cultural transmit/on - people are not born with ability to speak a concrete language. People are not born with the ability to learn a language. They acquire the language with the culture by communicating with other speakers and not from parental genes. The process by which language is passed on from one generation to the next one is described as cultural transmition. In animal communication, the signals are not generally learned , they are inherited. In the case of some birds however we may see that instinct sometimes combines with learning to produce the right sound. If these birds spend their first seven weeks without hearing of birds they will instincively produce songs but these songs may be not normal in some ways. 5. Discreteness (Diskretiskumas) - the sounds used in language are distinct, eg. we differenciate between 'b' and 'p' sounds. The sounds are meaningfully distinct which mean that they form words having a different meaning eg. 'pack1 and 'back'. 6. Duality- language is organised at two levels:

1. level of sounds;
2. level of meaning.
The number of sounds is finite, the meanings the sounds produce are infinitive. 7. Changebility (kintamumas) - which means that language never stops changing. Language's changes are influenced by factors lying outside, eg. wars, cultural contents, social changes; and factors lying inside it, eg. analogy. English serves as an excellent illustration of this. From a pre-do-minantly synthetic language it has changed to a predominatly analitic language, a language which is expressed by a structure separated from the stem, eg. 'Jane sings' (sintetine galune), 'Jane does not sing'.

Nr.2
The theory of the grammatical category. Major and minor categories. Gramatical categories are...
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