This chapter reviews the related literature and conceptual framework of this study. The literature review cover the shopping behaviour, shopping value, consumer’s decision making styles, perceived shopping mall image, shopping mall brand loyalty and consumer segmentation. The conceptual framework of this study will be explained in the end of this chapter.
2.1 Shopping behaviour
This section is attempts to provide an explanation on consumer shopping behaviour by review the previous study on the previous literature. Shopping is one of the distinct activities of consumer behaviour (Tauber, 1972) and shopping behaviour is a distinctive form of consumer behaviour (Asseel, 1987). According to Tauber (1972, p 46): “People's motives for shopping are a function of many variables, some of which are unrelated to the actual buying of products. It is maintained that an understanding of shopping motives require the consideration of satisfactions which shopping activities provide, as well as the utility obtained from the merchandise that may be purchased. If needs other than those associated with particular products motivate people to go to a store, the retailer should incorporate this information into his marketing strategy”.
Tauber's research hypothesized eleven motives for shopping behaviours. He divided them into personal and social motives: Personal motives • Role playing. Shopping can be an activity that are learn and expected as part of a certain role or position in society such as mother, housewife or husband (Jamal, Davies, Chudry and Al-Marri, 2006). • Diversion. Shopping can be a form of recreation activity and allowed shopper to diversify from the routine of daily life. • Learning about new trends. People can go shopping to update for the latest trends in fashion, styling or product innovations. • Physical activity. Shopping can be a physical exercise for people who are living in urban and congested living space. • Self gratification. Shopping can be an activity for shopper to motivate themselves by buying something nice and interesting. • Sensory stimulation. While shopping, people will expose to many potential sensory benefits provided by the shopping mall. Shopper browse through a store looking at the merchandise, enjoy handling the merchandise, listening to the back ground music and the scents. Social motives • Social experiences outside the home. During shopping, people can meet and socialite with friends.
Communication with others having similar interests. When people shop for hobby-related goods they may meet and communicate with other shoppers who have the same interest.
Peer-group attraction. The peer group attraction initiate consumers’ desires to be with they reference group (Ahmad et al., 2005).
Status and authority. Many shopping experiences provide the opportunity for an individual to command attention and respect. In few other activities can an individual expect to be waited on" without having to pay for this service” (Buttle and Coates, 1984).
Pleasure of bargaining. For many shoppers, bargaining is a degrading activity; haggling implies that one is 'cheap'. Others, however, appear to enjoy the process believing that, with bargaining, goods can be reduced to a more reasonable price (Buttle and Coates, 1984). Westbrook and Black (1985) extended Tauber’s (1972) work on consumer’s
shopping behaviour and they have suggested seven dimensions of shopping behaviours. According to Westbrook et al., (1985), the shopping behaviours including anticipated utility, role enactment, negotiation, choice optimization, affiliation, power and authority, and stimulation. According to Dholakia (1999), shopping behaviour are context specific; shopping has nowadays become a pass-time rather than a pure purchasing activity, such as shopping for groceries, household items, clothing and gifts. Thus, the motives and behaviours evident when a consumer...