Shaw and Barry

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Module 2 – Written Assignment
1. Shaw and Barry distinguish two different forms of utilitarianism. What are these two forms? Briefly describe each and use examples. Two different forms of utilitarianism are described in our text. The first is called act utilitarianism. According to Shaw and Barry, act utilitarianism states that we must ask ourselves what the consequences of a particular act in a particular situation will be for all those affected (p.60). The second form of utilitarianism is called rule utilitarianism. According to our text, this form of utilitarianism maintains that the utilitarian standard should be applied, not to individual actions, but to moral codes as a whole (Shaw & Barry, p.76). Rule Utilitarianism is based only on one single rule, which is utility. According to this theory, it is immaterial whether the utility provides any happiness or not. According to this theory, it is the value of the consequences of a particular act that counts while determining whether an act is morally correct or not. The value of consequences of an act is determined by the number of positive outcomes that can result for the greatest number of people. 2. What do economists mean by the "declining marginal utility of money"? According to the text, declining marginal utility of money, is the phrase that means that successive increases to one’s income produce, on average, less welfare or happiness, than did earlier additions (Shaw & Barry, p.112). Simply put, the more money you make, it takes bigger increases to make you happy. 3. Robert Nozick presents his entitlement theory as a function of three basic principles. What are these three basic principles? According to our text there are three basic principles that are the basis for Nozicks entitlement theory. The first of these states that a person who acquires a holding, in according with the principle of justice, in acquisition is entitled to that holding (Shaw & Barry, p.114). The second principle is...
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