Shaving gel is a viscous, clear gel preparation which is applied before shaving in order to soften the beard, lubricate the passage of razor over the face and moisturize the skin. Gels have cross-linked system which exhibits no flow in steady state. Desired characteristics of a Shaving Gel:
* It should be clear and transparent.
* It should have thick consistency but flowable.
* It should lather easily when applied with brush.
* It should give clean, fresh and moisturized feel after usage. * It should possess mild, pleasant fragrance.
* It should be non-toxic, non-irritant and safe for skin. * It should have sufficient shelf-life.
Majority of Shaving gel contains the following:
a. Fatty Acids – Structuring agents
e.g. – Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid. b. Emulsifier/Neutralizer – Helps to emulsify the fatty in water e.g. – Triethanolamine, KOH.
c. Thickener – Thicken the water phase
e.g. – Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Xanthan Gum. d. Foaming Agent – Helps to improve the foaming of fatty acid soap e.g. – Sodium Lauryl Sulfate.
e. Emollient – Helps to improve the feel on skin
e.g. – Olivem 300.
f. Humectant – Helps to keep the moisture in tact of the product e.g. – Glycerin, Propylene Glycol.
g. Preservative – Helps to preserve the product till its shelf life Germall Plus.
* Shaving gels are applied prior to shaving in order wet and soften the beard. * Shaving gel is applied to the skin to facilitate easy removal of hair. * The foam adds extra aesthetics and helps to identify shaving area.
AIM OF THIS PROJECT:
To develop a cost effective and best performing shaving gel which meets the characteristics of the best selling Gillette shaving gel. DESCRIPTION OF THE RAW MATERIALS:
1. Thickener –
It is prepared by reacting cellulose with ethylene oxide. It is soluble in cold water and hot water, usually insoluble in most organic solvents. It gives required viscosity between pH 2 to 12, but beyond this, it drops. Because of its nonionic property, it can coexist with other water-soluble polymer, surfactants and salts in wide range, is an excellent colloid thickener for high-concentration electrolyte solution. Its water retention is twice of methyl cellulose, with excellent flow controllability.
b. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC):
Chemical names: Propylene glycol ether of methylcellulose
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is a methylcellulose modified with a small amount of propylene glycol ether groups attached to the anhydroglucose of the cellulose. It is soluble in water and some organic solvents. Its aqueous solution is of surface tension, high transparency and stable property. The solubility varies with the viscosity, the lower the viscosity, higher is its solubility.
c. Xanthan Gum :
It is a hetero polysaccharide produced by biopolymerisation of bacteria Xanthomonas campestris (Microbial fermentation). It is soluble in cold water. Stable over wide pH range (upto 12). It is pseudo plastic in nature with good flow characteristics. 2. Fatty Acids:
Fatty Acids are aliphatic carboxylic acid with varying hydrocarbon lengths at one end of the chain joined to terminal carboxyl (-COOH) group at the other end. The general formula is R-(CH2) n-COOH. Fatty acids are predominantly unbranched and those with even numbers of carbon atoms between 12 and 22 carbons long react with glycerol to form lipids (fat-soluble components of living cells) in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Fatty acids all have common names respectively like Lauric (C12), Myristic (C14), Palmitic (C16), Stearic (C18), oleic (C18, unsaturated), and linoleic (C18, polyunsaturated) acids. The saturated fatty acids have no solid bonds, while oleic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid has one solid bond (also described as olefinic) and polyunsaturated fatty acids...