Shareholder Risk

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One of the most widely used concepts in finance is that shareholders require a risk premium over bond yields to bear the additional risks of equity investments. While models such as the two-parameter capital asset pricing model (CAPM) or arbitrage pricing theory offer explicit methods for varying risk premia across securities, the models are invariably linked to some underlying market (or factor-specific) risk premium. Unfortunately, the theortical models provide limited practical advice on establishing empirical estimates of such a benchmark market risk premium. As a result, the typical advice to practitioners is to estimate the market risk premium based on historical realizations of share and bond returns In this paper, we present estimates of shareholder required rates of return and risk premia which are derived using forward-looking analysts' growth forecasts. We update, through 1991, earlier work which, due to data availability, was restricted to the period 1982-1984 (Harris [12]). Using stronger tests, we also reexamine the efficacy of using such an expectational approach as an alternative to the use of historical averages. Using the S&P 500 as a proxy for the market portfolio, we find an average market risk premium (1982-1991) of 6.47% above yields on long-term U.S. government bonds and 5.13% above yields on corporate bonds. We also find that required returns for individual stocks vary directly with their risk (as proxied by beta) and that the market risk premium varies over time. In particular, the equity market premium over government bond yields is higher in low interest rate environments and when there is a larger spread between corporate and government bond yields. These findings show that, in addition to fitting the theoretical requirement of being forward-looking, the utilization of analysts' forecasts in estimating return requirements provides reasonable empirical results that can be useful in practical applications.

Section I provides...
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