COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF MAJOR PORTS IN EASTERN ASIA
Chien-Chang CHOU Lecturer Department of International Trade Ta Hwa Institute of Technology 1, Ta Hwa Road, Chung-Lin 307, Hsin-Chu Taiwan, R.O.C. Fax: +886-2-2463-1903 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Gin-Shuh LIANG Professor Dept. Shipping & Transportation Management National Taiwan Ocean University 2, Pei Ning Road, Keelung Taiwan, R.O.C. Fax: +886-2-2463-1903 E-mail: email@example.com Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze the competitiveness of major container ports in Asia Eastern region. These major container ports include Hong Kong port, Singapore port, Pusan port, Kaohsiung port and Shanghai port. We discuss the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of each major container port by SWOT analysis method. The findings lead to answer questions whether Taiwan government needs some new port policies, and how Kaohsiung port improves its competitiveness as well. Key Words: Containerization, Port competitiveness, SWOT analysis method 1. INTRODUCTION Containerization plays an important role in Asia’s rapid growth of international trade. With strong economic developments since the early 80’s and a shift in the global center of manufacturing to Asia, major ports in Far Eastern region have expanded rapidly. Asian container ports will increase their total annual container handling volumes from about 107 million TEUs in 2000 to between 254 million and 306 million TEUs in 2015, according to a report by Ocean Shipping Consultants. Depending on economic growth, Asian ports are also forecast to increase their box volumes by 45 to 54 percent over the 2000-2005 period, to between 154 million and 164 million TEUs. Further volume increases of 205 million to 236 million TEUs are forecast by 2010. The demand for container ports in Far Eastern region will further increase in the future. This trend will heighten competitive pressures on these major container ports in Far Eastern region. The evolution of super post-Panamax container vessels emphasizes the demand for transshipment. As a result, a large number of major transshipment hubs are established in Far Eastern region, South East Asia, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, and other parts of the world. The objectives of transshipment are not only to reduce the total cost of collecting and/or distributing the containers carried by a mega-mainline container vessel from and to numerous origin and destination ports, each of which only contributes a part of the mainline vessel cargo, but also to improve just-in-time delivery of cargo, reduce in transit inventory, and make the total origin-to-destination movement of containerized cargo more seamless. In other words, the purpose is not just to reduce origin-to-destination transport and handling or transfer costs but to make the whole supply chain, including its inherent transaction, more efficient and more responsive to the increasingly strict demands of an ever-changing global market place. Container transshipment will increase its role in Asia. Transshipment is particularly important in Far Eastern region and Southeast Asia. For example, most North Chinese ports, despite facing substantial cargo growth, cannot yet handle fully laden very Ching-Wu CHU Associate Professor Dept. Shipping & Transportation Management National Taiwan Ocean University 2, Pei Ning Road, Keelung Taiwan, R.O.C. Fax: +886-2-2463-1903 E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.5, October, 2003
large containerships, though they are developing the capability to do so. Some papers predict an increasing significance of Korean ports as transshipment hubs for Northeast China and minor Japanese ports. In Northeast Asia, transshipment is of growing importance. In addition, ports such as Singapore, Kaohsiung and Hong Kong compete for transshipment cargoes from Thailand, Philippines and Malaysia. The ports of Hong Kong and...