Corvallis, OR 97330
Building 1, Chemeketa Community College
4000 Lancaster Drive NE
P.O. Box 14007
Salem, OR 97309
Professor Kim Colantino
In accordance with the final report assignment due Dec 5th, I have enclosed my report titled, “Shale Gas and Water Safety: Insights into Water Management” This report was assigned by you and prepared by me with the purpose of helping me to sharpen my technical writing skills. At the completion of this report I am glad to say that my writing skills have improved ten-fold and I can present useful information in a more clear and concise manner for my intended audiences. This report is comprised of 5 main sections:
* Introduction; Hydraulic Fracturing Background, describes why shale gas exploration has increased in recent years, and how the hydraulic fracturing process works, including why it’s a key factor in water quality and safety issues in and around the Marcellus shale formation. * Body; Methods for Wastewater Disposal, describes 5 disposal methods for frac wastewater. They are compared and contrasted with one another in areas of sustainability, ease of deployment, and economic feasibility. * Body; Leaking of Fracking Fluid Pits, discusses why this is statistically the most serious issue facing shale gas pollution today, discusses implementable methods to requiem this pollution hazard. * Body; Congress Regulation Exemptions for Hydraulic Fracturing, discusses current laws which allow for loopholes in the litigations against shale gas companies, and a background on their implementation. * Conclusion; provides a condensed summary of my report and recommendations for the cleaner processing of shale gas and its wastewater.
It has been a privilege of mine to undertake the production of this report. I only hope that my research will instill a greater sense of environmental awareness among my fellow citizens so we can press forward as a nation to resolve the improper laws allowing shale gas companies to pollute the land, and so support for improved water treatment technologies can take place. I would like to extend my thanks to you, for the supportive and helpful comments you’ve given me on the past assignments, and I also extend my thanks to the talented authors who wrote the articles and research papers from which I drew upon for knowledge and inspiration. It has been a pleasure of mine to prepare this report, thank you once again for your help. If you have any questions or would like to further discuss this report, you reach me easily at my cell phone number, 971.533.2820 and additionally, through my email address at firstname.lastname@example.org. Sincerely
This paper analyzes the problem of wastewater generated from the hydraulic fracturing process of producing natural gas, particularly with regard to production in the Marcellus Shale. It shows that, while hydraulic fracturing (often called “hydrofracking” or “fracking”) generates massive amounts of polluted wastewater that threaten the health of our drinking water supplies, rivers, streams, and groundwater, federal and state regulations have not kept up with the dramatic growth in the practice and must be significantly strengthened to reduce the risks of fracking throughout the Marcellus region and elsewhere. Hydrofracking and the production of natural gas from fracked wells yield byproducts that must be managed carefully to avoid significant harms to human health and the environment. These wastewater by-products are known as “flowback” (fracturing fluid injected into a gas well that returns to the surface when drilling pressure is released) and “produced water” (all wastewater emerging from the well after production begins, much of which is salty water contained within the shale formation. Both types of wastewater contain potentially harmful pollutants, including salts, organic hydrocarbons (sometimes referred to simply as oil and grease),...