History itself stands evident to the fact that whenever Islam was in danger, by any agency or enemy, it was saved by such personalities who through their spiritual power not only saved it but also gave it a new life. The movement of Shah Wali Ullah was the first in the Subcontinent that aimed at socio-economic and politico – religious reformation of the degenerated Muslim society. * Introduction
Hazrat Shah waliullah was born on 21st February 1703 in Delhi. He was born during the reign of Aurangzeb. He worked for the revival of Islamic rule and intellectual learning in South Asia, during a time of waning Muslim power.The original name of Shah Waliullah was Qutbuddin and his father's name was Shah Abdul Raheem. Shah Waliullah had a son and 5 daughters from his first wife. His second wife bore him four sons:Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddis Dehlvi, Shah Rafiuddin, Shah Abdul Qadir, and Shah Abdul Ghani. Shah Waliullah was, perhaps, the only Muslim scholar of Mediaeval India who realized the importance of economics in a social and political set-up. He advocated the maintenance of economic equilibrium in the society and strongly criticized the accumulation of wealth which leads to all sorts of evils in the world. He had visualized a social order based on economic equality, fraternity and brotherhood which are the principles governing Islamic socialist practices during the time of the pious Caliphs. Shah Waliullah visualized an ideal state of the days of the Pious Caliphs and strove to it. Analyzing his political thought, Iqbal states:
"The Prophetic method of teaching, according to Shah Waliullah is that, generally speaking, the law revealed by a prophet takes especial notice of the habits, ways and peculiarities of the people to whom he is specifically sent. The Prophet who aims at all-embracing principles, however, can neither reveal different peoples nor leave them to work out their own rules of conduct. His method is to train one particular people and to use it as a nucleus for the build up of a universal `Shariah'. In doing so, he accentuates the principles underlying the social life of all mankind and applies them to concrete cases in the light of the specific habits of the people immediately before him." * Early Education
Shah Waliullah received his education at Madrasa Rahimiyya. His father was his teacher and source of spiritual guidance.He was a man of letters. He commenced his studies at the age of five and completed the recitation and memorization of the Qur'an by the age of seven. Thereafter, he commenced primary lessons in Persian and Arabic, which were completed in a year. Then, he studied the grammar and syntax of Persian and Arabic. He completed his studies in philosophy and theologyat the age of fifteen and then commenced his studies in mantiq, fiqh, hadith, tibb, algebra,mathematics, kalaam, spirituality, mysticism, oratory and metaphysics under his father. Thereafter, he was inducted into the tradition of bay'at by his father and, by the age of seventeen, he was permitted to provide spiritual guidance to and reform his fellow [[Muslims, he became a mudarris (teacher) atMadrasa Rahimiyya. He held this position for twelve years. Then, in 1731, Shah Waliullah performed Hajj. He reached Makkah on May 21 and performed Hajj, after which he proceeded to Medina. There, he attended Shaikh Abu Tahir Muhammad bin Ibrahim Kurdi Madani's discourses on hadith. Shah Waliullah studied Sihah Sitta, Mu'atta Imam Malik, Masnad Da'armi, and Imam Muhammad's Al A'saarunder him. Thereafter, he returned to Makkah, performed another Hajj, studied Al-Muwatta Imam Malikfor a second time under Shaikh Wafadullah Maliki Makki, and attended the discourses of ShaikhTajuddin Hanafi Qala'i Makki on Sihah Sitta. Then, he was permitted to teach all of the kitabs of hadithby Shaikh Tajuddin. Thereafter, Shah Waliullah returned to India. His journey back to India lasted six months and he reached Delhi on January 1,...