Sexually Transmitted Disease in Thailand: Non-Specific Urethritis

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Non-Specific Urethritis

Urethritis means inflammation of the urethra, the tube where urine passes. This inflammation can be caused by different factors; hence it is called non-specific urethritis. The inflammation does not necessarily mean that there is an underlying infection. If the urethra has been irritated due to physical means, it can damage the lining and may cause some discharge. Similarly, being exposed to strong substances can inflame the urethra.

Signs and Symptoms

On the other hand, there are also several types of infection that can cause the inflammation. It is classified into two categories, mainly to distinguish the approach for the treatment procedure. The first category is gonococcal urethritis which is caused by gonorrheal infection. The second category being non-gonoccocal urethritis which is often cause by chlamydial infection. Others may come from ureaplasma or mycoplasma. While in rare cases, herpes can be involved. For both gonococcal and non-gonoccocal urethritis, the inflammation usually subsides after a couple of days, but the infections causing it should be treated accordingly.


NSU is characterized by painful urination which may include genital discharge. As said earlier, the treatment depends on the cause so it is best to identify first if you have any of these infections before taking medications. These are the most common prescription drugs for non-specific urethritis since most cases are caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia, both of which can be treated using these drugs.

TAzithromycin  (Azith, Zithromax) 1 g orally in a single dose

Doxycycline (Vibramycin) 100 mg orally twice a day for 7 days

Ofloxacin (Tarivid, Floxin) 300 mg orally twice a day for 7 days

However, in cases where in there in no evident infection, antibiotic treatment is unnecessary.

Genital Warts

Genital warts, more popularly known as venereal wart, condylomata acuminata or “cauliflower” sex disease, is caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Genital warts are flesh or gray-colored, cauliflower-shaped outbreaks that develop in the genital and anal region in both men and women. They can also sometimes be present in the mouth and throat area of the infected person.

Genital warts are highly contagious since there is a 60% risk of acquiring the infection from a single sexual contact, making it the most common sexually transmitted disease caused by a virus. In Thailand alone, it is estimated that almost 70% of sex workers have this disease, and up to 20% of these people may have other STD other than genital warts.


The human papilloma virus is the cause of genital warts. With over 100 types of HPV identified, about 40 of these will likely infect the genital area. Two specific types of HPV virus (HPV-6 and -11) can be found in 90% of genital warts. Fortunately, these have a low-cancer-causing potential. Once the virus penetrates the skin, it undergoes a latency period. After contact, some people develop the warts within three months, while others may not show signs and symptoms for a couple of months, even years. This is the reason why the disease is very popular. It can be passed on from person to person without them knowing it.

Signs and Symptoms

Genital warts are generally painless. However, an infected person may experience uncomfortable itch and irritation sometimes accompanied by a discharge. The size range of the warts varies, and it may join together. In men, the warts can appear in the penis, scrotum and rectal area, while in women, it usually occurs in moist areas, preferably the vaginal opening. Lesions can also be visible on the outer genitals as well. For rare cases, bleeding or urinary obstruction may be present if the wart has grown near a urethral opening.


It is important that you inform your doctor about the history of the appearance of the warts. In order for lesions to be more visible, a technique called acetowhitening is used....
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