EXTRACTON OF SASAME OIL USING
DIFFERENT METHODS OF EXTRACTION
FOOD PROCESSING PRACTICAL
GROUP THREE MEMBERS
ISMAILA AYUBA RAMADAN
Department of Food Technology
University of Ibadan
Oil extraction was carried out using two different extraction method (water and solvent) and the yield for different method were obtained. The free fatty acid for different oil was also determined immediately after extraction and also on storage for two weeks. The solvent method was carried out in soxhlet apparatus while hot water was used to extract oil from decorticated sesame seed. The yield from both method varied and the free fatty acid also increases with storage time.
Sesame, common name for a genus, containing about 15 species of herbaceous plants native to Africa and Asia, applied especially to one of its species that is widely cultivated for its seeds. The oil extracted from sesame seeds is used in cooking, as salad oil, and in making margarine. Commercially the plants are grown as annuals from seed, reaching a height of about 2 m (about 6 ft) in three to five months. The plants are cut and dried; as they dry, the seed capsules split open, and the seeds are easily extracted by shaking the plants upside down. Sesame seeds from Sesamum indicum L. contain lignan analogs, which are, together with their decomposition products, present in crude sesame oil and extracted meal. They are only partially eliminated during refining so that they contribute to the well-known stability of sesame oil. The most active compound is sesamol, which is accompanied by several structurally related compounds. The antioxidant activity is affected by roasting and steaming of seeds before extraction. Sesame lignans, added in small concentration, were very active in ground pork and sausages. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is believed to be one of the most ancient crops cultivated by humans. It was first recorded as a crop in Babylon and Assyria over 4000 years ago. The seeds of the crop are used both as condiment and oil source. The Babylonians made wine and cakes with sesame seeds, whereas sesame oil was used for cooking, medicinal, and cosmetic purposes. Ancient Indians used sesame oil as lighting oil, and sesame seeds were commonly used in the religious rites of Hindus. The Chinese believed that sesame seeds could promote health and longevity. Sesame seed has higher oil content (around 50%) than most of the known oilseeds although its production is far less than the major oilseeds such as soybean or rapeseed due to labor-intensive harvesting of the seeds. Sesame oil is generally regarded as high-priced and high-quality oil. It is one of the most stable edible oil despite its high degree of unsaturation. The presence of lignan type of natural antioxidants accounts for both the superior stability of sesame oil and the beneficial physiological effects of sesame. In Asia, sesame oil is obtained by pressing the roasted oilseeds and consumed as naturally flavored oil without refining. In the western world, sesame oil is extracted by a multiple-step mechanical expeller and either the virgin oil or the refined oil is used for salad dressing. After pressing out oil, the remaining sesame meal contains high-quality protein suitable for human consumption as well as animal feed. It is also a good source of water-soluble antioxidants. Sesame seeds are higher in oil contents than most other oilseeds and sesame oil has good flavor and oxidation stability, sesame seeds have never been a major oil source. The low yield (400–500 kg/ha) of sesame seeds and the labor intensive harvesting procedure are the limiting factors.
Sesame seed contains high levels of fat and protein. The chemical composition of sesame seed varies with the...