What is criminology? Criminology is the scientific study of the extent, nature, causes, and control of criminal behavior in individuals, and in society. Criminology is an ` sociologists, (particularly in the sociology of deviance), social anthropologists, and psychologists, as well as on writings in law. Areas of research in criminology include the incidence, forms, causes, and consequences of crime, as well as social and governmental regulations, and reaction to crime. For studying the distribution, and causes of crime, criminology mainly relies upon quantitative methods. The term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as criminological. Around the same time, but later, French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term criminology.
The social problems perspective is the belief that crime is a manifestation of underlying social issues, such as discrimination, pervasive family violence, poverty, the break downs of traditional social institutions, ,and inadequate socialization practices. The definition of the social responsibility perspective is: the belief that individuals are fundamentally responsible for their own behavior, and that they choose crime over other, more law abiding courses of action. There have been several ongoing debates about both perspectives. It is clear there is contrasting perspectives between criminologists, and some sociologists, and I intend on explaining the differences, and similarities between the two, if any.
Underlying social problems are what some believe is the real reason for crime. Yes, it is believed that people who live in poverty, and do not have the monetary advantages as others, and share violent formative years have more tendencies to commit crime. Human beings that suffer from horrific experiences growing up often repeat the vicious cycle in which their own experiences have shown them. There are several agencies that are in place that attempt to combat deviant behavior that the state spends millions of dollars on because they argue that, crime, is a problem that should be addressed the same way one would address a public health concern. Social scientists have chosen to macro manage the social problems perspective because it depicts a larger uncontrollable more widespread way of describing why such deviant behavior is possible in areas that are largely violent ,and subjected to poverty. Individuals who chose a life of crime over other law abiding courses of action are lawless, and their choices make them more sociopathic than psychologically disturbed creating a euphoric feeling once the crime has been committed. Some feel that some individuals are more prone to making irresponsible decisions due to some very personalized issues that affect their decision making process, and will always chose to be deviant. There is a unique similarity between the social responsibility perspective, and the social problems perspective. Once the background of the subject is exposed it can often times be determined that immediate life experiences can be the culprit of deviant behavior. Like most social issues in the world that affect a certain demographic negatively, it is likely that the survival of the fittest can be introduced ,and people may then try to take care of themselves by any means necessary, even if it means robbing ,and stealing ,and often times murder. The micro analysis that the social responsibility perspective offers can indeed analyze a person’s personal psychology and their unique biology as the causes of negative and deviant behavior. Those who believe that social responsibility is the way to rehabilitate approve of increased punishment through imprisonment, and a wider use of police power. Part II Serial Killer Profile
Andrei Chikatilo was born October 16, 1936 in the village of Yablochnoye...