Med Surg2 Clinical
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection; it is the leading cause of death in intensive care units (Shimaoka, Park, 2008). The body may develop the inflammatory response to microbes in the blood, urine, lungs, skin and other tissues. Sepsis is usually treated in the ICU with antibiotic therapy and Intravenous fluids. These patients require preventative measures for deep vein thrombosis, stress ulcer and pressure ulcers. The first 6 hours are known to be the most crucial time. This has been associated with higher mortality rates within the last 5 years, more than 75,000 patients die of septic shock every year in the US and is the tenth most common cause of death overall. Manifestations of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) include abnormalities in temperature, heart, respiratory rates and leukocyte counts. This is a form of severe sepsis that arises from a noninfectious cause. Sepsis is defined by the presence of 2 or more SIRS criteria in the setting of a documented or presumed infection (Rivers, McIntyre, Morro, Rivers, 2005). The condition may manifest into severe sepsis or septic shock. Severe sepsis is characterized by organ dysfunction, while septic shock results when blood pressure decreases and becomes extremely hypotensive even with the administration of fluid resuscitation. The initial presentation of severe sepsis and septic shock is usually nonspecific. Patients admitted with relatively benign infection can progress in a few hours to a more devastating form of the disease. The transition usually occurs during the first 24 hours of hospitalization. The reason for this is that there is a dramatic decrease in tissue oxygen delivery and causes cardiovascular insufficiency. This is the only widow of opportunity in trying to fight the disorder. The initial response the body has to the infection is known as a humoral cellular and neuroendocrine reaction. In this...
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