Separation Of Mixtures
A mixture can simply be defined as a substance that is made up or consists of two or more elements and/or compounds that are physically combined but that have not reacted chemically to form new substances. A mixture may be a solid, liquid, gas, or some combination of those states. Mixtures can be found almost every wher in our everyday lifes and some common examples are * sand and water
* salt and water
* sugar and salt
Due to the fact that mixture are not chemically combined, They can easily be separated into component substances by using physical means. Chemists have devised numerous methods for separating mixtures based on there differential physical characteristics Below are a couple of separation techniques:
1. Sublimation. This involves heating a solid until it passes directly from the solid phase into the gaseous phase. The reverse process, when the vapor goes back to the solid phase is called deposition.
2. Extraction. This uses a solvent to selectively dissolve one component of the solid mixture. With this technique, a soluble solid can be separated from an insoluble solid.
3. Decantation. This separates a liquid from an insoluble solid by carefully pouring the liquid from the solid without disturbing the solid.
4. Filtration. This separates a solid from a liquid through the use of a porous material as a filter. Paper is a good filter. Filters allow the liquid to, pass through but not the solid.
5. Evaporation. This is the process of heating a mixture in order to drive off a volatile liquid and make the remaining component dry
Bunsen burner and tubing
ring stand and ring