Separating Homogeneous Mixtures

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Introduction
A heterogeneous mixture is not uniform throughout. Therefore, separate components of a heterogeneous mixture can be separated by using differences in the components’ physical properties. In this laboratory experiment, I attempted to experimentally verify that the components of a heterogeneous mixture containing salt, sand, and benzoic acid can be separated using the separate components’ solubility properties (ability to dissolve in water). Because it is known that organic compounds (such as benzoic acid) are very soluble in organic solvents, a hexane: ethanol mixture was used to dissolve the acid. Also, because it is known that sodium chloride dissolves in water, water was used to dissolve the NaCl. Along with separating the components of a heterogeneous mixture, the percent recovery of each substance was calculated using the formula: % recovery = (final mass)/(inital mass) x 100. The percent recovery is the amount of substance that was recovered from before the experiment to after the experiment. Overall, in this laboratory experiment, differences in solubility could help to separate the difference components of a heterogeneous mixture of salt, sand, and benzoic acid.  Data

Benzoic AcidTrial 1
Mass of dry test tube14.72 g
Mass of dry beaker27.95 g
Mass of beaker with hexane: ethanol mixture and salt, sand 29.92 g Volume of hexane: ethanol mixture6 mL
Mass of benzoic acid (before).18 g
Mass of beaker and benzoic acid crystals28.10 g
Mass of benzoic acid (after).15 g
% recovery of benzoic acid83.3%

SaltTrial 1
Mass of dry test tube14.72 g
mass of dry beaker28.23 g
Mass of salt (before).18 g
Mass of beaker and salt (after)28.46 g
Mass of salt (after).23 g
% recovery of salt127.7%

SandTrial 1
Mass of dry test tube14.72 g
Mass of sand (before).22 g
Mass of test tube and sand (all water removed)14.92 g
Mass of sand (after).20 g
% recovery of sand90.9%


Calculations
Sample percent recovery calculation:...
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