Sensors and Transducers

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Sensors and Transducers

Sensors and Transducers
Third edition Ian R. Sinclair







Newnes An imprint of Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041 A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group First published by BSP Professional Books 1988 Reprinted by Butterworth-Heinemann 1991 Second edition published by Butterworth-Heinemann 1992 Third edition 2001 # I. R. Sinclair 1988, 1992, 2001 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 9HE. Applications for the copyright holder's written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 7506 4932 1

Typeset by David Gregson Associates, Beccles, Su¡olk Printed and bound in Great Britain


Preface to Third Edition Preface to First Edition Introduction 1 Strain and pressure 2 Position, direction, distance and motion 3 Light and associated radiation 4 Temperature sensors and thermal transducers 5 Sound, infrasound and ultrasound 6 Solids, liquids and gases 7 Environmental sensors 8 Other sensing methods 9 Instrumentation techniques 10 Switch principles 11 Switch mechanisms 12 Signal-carrying switches Appendix A: Suppliers of sensors and transducers Appendix B: Glossary of terms Index

vii ix xi 1 21 53 87 116 142 170 197 206 233 248 270 290 293 296

Preface to Third Edition

This third edition of Sensors and Transducers has been thoroughly revised to take account of the ever-increasing role of these components and of improvements in design. New tables of properties and illustrations have also been added. The topic of switches and switching actions has also been added because so many types of sensor are intended ultimately to provide a switching action. Ian Sinclair

Preface to First Edition

The purpose of this book is to explain and illustrate the use of sensors and transducers associated with electronic circuits. The steady spread of electronic circuits into all aspects of life, but particularly into all aspects of control technology, has greatly increased the importance of sensors which can detect, as electrical signals, changes in various physical quantities. In addition, the conversion by transducers of physical quantities into electronic signals and vice versa has become an important part of electronics. Because of this, the range of possible sensors and transducers is by now very large, and most textbooks that are concerned with the interfaces between electronic circuits and other devices tend to deal only with a few types of sensors for speci¢c purposes. In this book, you will ¢nd described a very large range of devices, some used industrially, some domestically, some employed in teaching to illustrate e¡ects, some used only in research laboratories. The important point is that the reader will ¢nd reference to a very wide range of devices, much more than it would be possible to present in a more specialized text. In addition, I have assumed that the physical principles of each sensor or transducer will not necessarily be familiar. To be useful, a book of this kind should be accessible to a wide range of users, and since the correct use of sensors and transducers often depends critically on an understanding of the physical...
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