Seminar-Report-on- Optical Fiber Communications

Topics: Optical fiber, Fiber-optic communication, Laser Pages: 31 (8004 words) Published: December 24, 2012
Table of Content




2.0History of Optical Fiber9

3.0Construction of Optical Fiber12

4.0Guiding Mechanism in Optical Fiber13

5.0Basic Components of OFC15





6.0Principle of optical transmission16

6.1Refractive Index16

6.2Snell’s Law17

6.3Critical Angle17

6.4Total Internal Reflection18

6.5Acceptance Cone19

6.6Numerical Aperture21

7.0Advantage of optical fiber communication23

7.1Advantage of optical fiber communication26


8.1| Material| 29|
8.2| Mode| 29|
8.3| Waveguide| 29|

9.1Absorption loss31

9.2Light Scattering32

9.3Bending loss33

10.0 Fiber34

10.1 Multi Mode34

10.2 Single Index35

11.0 Optical Resources36

11.1 LED36

11.2 LASER38

12.0 Optical Detectors41

12.1 Photo Detectors41

12.2 Photo Diodes42

13.0 Limitations of Optical Fiber Technology45

14.0 Application45



First and foremost I offer my sincerest gratitude to my teachers who has supported me throughout my report, with his patience and knowledge. I attribute the level of my bachelor degree to his encouragement and effort and without him this report, too would not have been completed or written. One simply could not wish for a better or friendlier . The authors also wish to thank the other faculty members , for their valuable suggestions and directions. I am also indebted to the many countless contributors to the Internet, online optical fiber community, PDF file editors, Microsoft office for providing the numerous documents and tools I have used to produce both my report, data and figure. Department of Electronics and Communications has provided the support I have needed to produce and complete my seminar report. I also thanks for my batch mates for providing constant encouragement, Support and valuable suggestions during the development of the report. Finally, I thank my parents, uncle for supporting me throughout my report through various methods.

1.0 Introduction of Optical Fiber:-

Our current “age of technology” is the result of many brilliant inventions

and discoveries, but it

is our ability to transmit information, and the

media we use to do it, that is perhaps most responsible for its evolution. Progressing from the copper wire of a century ago to today’s fiber optic cable, our increasing ability to transmit more information, more quickly and over longer distances has expanded the boundaries of our technological development in all areas. An optical fiber (or fiber) is a glass or plastic fiber

that carries light along its length. Fiber optics is the



concerned with the design and application of optical

fibers. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber optic

communications, which

permits transmission over

longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) because light has

high frequency than any

other form of radio signal than other forms of

communications. Light

is kept in the core of the optical fiber by total

internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference, which is caused by thunderstorm. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry images, thus allowing

viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.

2.0 History of Fiber Optic Technology:-

In 1870, John Tyndall, using a jet of water that flowed from one container to another and a beam of...
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