Semiconductor Devices

Topics: Semiconductor, Silicon, Integrated circuit Pages: 18 (3598 words) Published: April 13, 2011
Lecture 1

Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

Reading: Notes and Anderson2 Chapters 1.1-1.3, 1.7-1.9

Georgia Tech

ECE 3080 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Atoms to Operational Amplifiers
•The goal of this course is to teach the fundamentals of non-linear circuit elements including diodes, LEDs, LASER diodes, transistors (BJT and FET) , and advanced device concepts such as microwave compound semiconductors and state of the art devices. •Due to the diverse coverage from various professors for ECE3040, you will repeat (for some) some of the material from 3040. Specifically, you will learn about the fundamentals of electron movement in semiconductor materials and develop this basic knowledge of how we can construct devices from these materials that can control the flow of electrons and light in useful ways. Georgia Tech ECE 3080 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Market Study
Silicon is and will for a very long time be the dominant material used for electronics. However, MANY up and coming materials are slowly eating into silicon’s dominance.

Compound semiconductors

Compound semiconductors Organic and compound semiconductors

Georgia Tech

ECE 3080 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Devices we will study

Bold indicates devices covered in depth in ECE 3040 P-N diode, heterojunction diodes, ballistic diodes, Schottky barrier diodes, Metal-Semiconductor Contacts, LEDs, Lasers, Solar Cells, Photodetectors, BJT, HBT, MOSFET, MESFET, JFET, Polarization Based Devices (III-Nitrides HEMTs and Ferroelectric transistors), CCD, Microwave transistors, power transistors, organic semiconductors

Georgia Tech

ECE 3080 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Modern amplifiers consist of extremely small devices

Transistors in the above image are only a few microns (µm or 1e-6 meters) on a side. Modern devices have lateral dimensions that are only fractions of a micron (~0.1 µm) and vertical dimensions that may be only a few atoms tall. Georgia Tech ECE 3080 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Famous Last Words: “I only want to design computers. I do not need to know about ‘atoms and electrons’ ”. --- A Doomed Computer Engineer Intel Develops World's Smallest, Fastest CMOS Transistor SANTA CLARA, Calif., Dec. 11, 2000 - Intel Corporation researchers have achieved a significant breakthrough by building the world's smallest and fastest CMOS transistor. This breakthrough will allow Intel within the next five to 10 years to build microprocessors containing more than 400 million transistors, running at 10 gigahertz (10 billion cycles per second) and operating at less than one volt. The transistors feature structures just 30 nanometers in size and three atomic layers thick. (Note: A nanometer is onebillionth of a meter). Smaller transistors are faster, and fast transistors are the key building block for fast microprocessors, the brains of computers and countless other smart devices. These new transistors, which act like switches controlling the flow of electrons inside a microchip, could complete 400 million calculations in the blink an eye or finish two million calculations in the time it takes a speeding bullet to travel one inch. Scientists expect such powerful microprocessors to allow applications popular in science-fiction stories -- such as instantaneous, real-time voice translation -- to become an everyday reality. Researchers from Intel Labs are disclosing the details of this advance today in San Francisco at the International Electron Devices Meeting, the premier technical conference for semiconductor engineers and scientists. "This breakthrough will allow Intel to continue increasing the performance and reducing the cost of microprocessors well into the future," said Dr. Sunlin Chou, vice president and general manager of Intel's Technology and Manufacturing Group. "As our researchers venture into uncharted areas beyond the previously expected limits of silicon scaling, they find Moore's Law still intact." Intel researchers were able to build these...
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