Kifah Talib Tawfiq
This seminar consists of the following paragraphs
2- Definition of the terms (Semantic and lexical)
3- The relation between the two terms
What is Semantics and lexical?
1- What is semantics?
Semantics is the study of meaning. It is a wide subject within the general study of language. An understanding of semantics is essential to the study of language acquisition (how language users acquire a sense of meaning, as speakers and writers, listeners and readers) and of language change (how meanings alter over time). It is important for understanding language in social contexts, as these are likely to affect meaning, and for understanding varieties of English and effects of style. It is thus one of the most fundamental concepts in linguistics. The study of semantics includes the study of how meaning is constructed, interpreted, clarified, obscured, illustrated, simplified negotiated, contradicted and paraphrased.
The branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning. The two main areas are logical semantics, concerned with matters such as sense and reference and presupposition and implication, and lexical semantics, concerned with the analysis of word meanings and relations between them. Lexical and semantics are terms used in relation to aspects of language. Semantic fields
In studying the lexicon of English (or any language) we may group together lexemes which inter-relate, in the sense that we need them to define or describe each other. For example we can see how such lexemes as cat, feline, moggy, puss, kitten, tom, queen and miaow occupy the same semantic field. We can also see that some lexemes will occupy many fields: noise will appear in semantic fields for acoustics, pain or discomfort and electronics (noise = “interference”). Although such fields are not clear-cut and coherent, they are akin to the kind of groupings children make for themselves in learning a language. An entertaining way to see how we organize the lexicon for ourselves is to play word-association games.
2- What is lexical
Lexical is concerned with the structure of language. Lexical is a matter of the logical or grammatical form of sentences, rather than what they refer to or mean.
Semantics is concerned with the meaning of words and sentences. Semantics is a matter of the content or meaning of sentences, often in relation to their truth and falsehood.
'Moths speak ravenously' is syntactically correct as it has a valid 'noun verb adverb' structure, but it is senseless (semantically null). 'Boys play roughly' has both proper syntax and a clear semantic content.
This argument-mapping exercise is a powerful way to appreciate the difference between syntax and semantics. It has four steps:
Make a reasoning map of the argument in the box below. This argument has correct syntax and is semantically clear. We have made the logical structure of the argument more apparent by highlighting 'indicators' that signal reasons and objections. Lexical semantics is a subfield of linguistic semantics. It is the study of how and what the words of a language denote (Pustejovsky, 1995). Words may either be taken to denote things in the world or concepts, depending on the particular approach to lexical semantics.
The units of meaning in lexical semantics are lexical units, which a speaker can continually add to throughout their life, learning new words and their meanings. By contrast, one can only easily learn the grammatical rules of one's native language during a critical period when one is young.
Lexical semantics covers theories of the classification and decomposition of word meaning, the differences and similarities in lexical semantic structure between different languages, and the relationship of word meaning to sentence meaning and syntax .
One question that lexical semantics explores is whether...