English is one of the most important and most spoken languages in the world. It is the native language of more than 350 million people. Undoubtedly, the popularity of the language has termed English as the international language of business, education, science, technology, banking, computing, medicine, aviation, engineering, tourism, UN & NATO armed forces, Hollywood films and the best pop and rock music of the world. So, it is seemed to be the only language that truly links the whole world together. Understanding the importance of the English language more and more people in the world want to learn and to know English. Prepositions pose more problems for the non-native speaker or learner of English than any other part of speech, because they are not used in the same way in different languages. This topic was investigated by such researchers and scientists as Tom Cole, Yates Jean, James Heaton, Seth Lindstromberg, O’Dowd Elizabeth, Prieur Charles & Speyer Elizabeth. Object – prepositions in Modern English.
Subject – classification of prepositions in Modern English and their usage. Aim – to highlight different classification of English prepositions and explain their usage. Objectives –
1. Give general characteristics of the preposition as a part of speech. 2. Reveal the Morphological classification of English prepositions. 3. Characterize functional classes of the prepositions.
4. Examine the Idiomatic expressions with prepositions and their speech functions. Methods –
1. Analysis of the scientific literature on grammar of the English language 2. Comparison, juxtaposition of the information and generalization of the research’s results. CHAPTER 1
1.1. General characteristics of the preposition as a part of speech
Learning about the parts of speech is the first step in grammar study just as learning the letters of the alphabet is the first step to being able to read and write. From learning the parts of speech we begin to understand the use or function of words and how words are joined together to make meaningful communication. . ‘In modern linguistics, parts of speech are discriminated on the basis of the three criteria: “semantic”, “formal” and “functional”. In accord with the described criteria, words on the upper level of classification are divided into notional and functional’ . Preposition belongs to the functional parts of speech and expresses the dependencies and interdependencies of substantive referents. 1) Meaning. The meaning of prepositions is obviously that of relations between things and phenomena. 2) Form. Prepositions are invariable.
3) Function. (a) Prepositions enter into phrases in which they are preceded by a noun, adjective, numeral, stative, verb or adverb, and followed by a noun, adjective, numeral or pronoun. (b) In a sentence a preposition never is a separate part of it. It goes together with the following word to form an object, adverbial modifier, predicative or attribute, and in extremely rare cases a subject.  A preposition is a word which shows the relationships between a noun or a pronoun and other word in the sentence. Prepositions are usually (but not always) placed before noun or pronoun which they govern. Prepositions are use in order to add up emphasis in the sentences. These words are often compound with other parts of speech like conjunctions, verbs and even with adverbs. When that happens, it gradually forms a new word which acts as a preposition and thus giving more meaning in the sentence. The lexical meaning of the preposition is rather unclear. According to the Ivanova: ‘Чрезвычайно трудно разрешим вопрос наличия или отсутствия у предлога лексического значения. Предлог лишен способности номинации; он не называет передаваемого им отношения, он только указывает на него: of, to, under, on не называют предмета мысли. На этом основании М. И. Стеблин-Каменский рассматривает предлоги как единицы, лишённые...