Motivation is internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal. Motivation is the energizer of behavior and mother of all action. It results from the interactions among conscious and unconscious factors such as the intensity of desire or need, incentive or reward value of the goal, and expectations of the individual and of his or her significant others
Maslow’s classic hierarchy of needs model proposed that there are five fundamental needs which are arranged in a ‘hierarchy of prepotency’. Maslow argued that needs form a hierarchy in the sense that, when no needs are fulfilled, a person concentrates upon their physiological needs. When these needs are fulfilled, safety needs become preponderant and important determinants of behaviour. When these are satisfied, belongingness becomes important and so up the hierarchy. Although Maslow’s belief that one set of needs only become important after lower older needs have been completely satisfied has been criticised. This theory highlights the perhaps obvious point that a satisfied need is not a motivator of behaviour. A salesperson who already receives a more than adequate level of remuneration may not be motivated by additional payments. The theory implies that what may act as a motivator for one salesperson may not be effective for another. This follows from the likelihood that different salespeople will have different combinations of needs. Effective motivation results from an accurate assessment of the needs of the individual salesperson under the manager’s supervision. The overriding need for one salesperson may be reassurance and the building of confidence; this may act to motivate him/her, for another with a great need for esteem, the sales manager may motivate by highlighting outstanding performance at a sales meeting. A, Capehart (2009) Elements of salesperson control: an organization theory perspective; Journal of business & Industrial Marketing, vol 24, no.2.
Herzberg’s dual factor theory distinguishes factors which can cause dissatisfaction but cannot motivate and factors which can cause positive motivation. Hygiene factors included physical working conditions, security, salary and interpersonal relationships. Directing managerial attention to these factors, postulated Hertzberg, would bring motivation up to a ‘theoretical zero’ but would not result in positive motivation. If this were to be achieved, attention would have to be given to true motivators. This included the nature of the work itself which allows the person to make some concrete achievement recognition of achievement, the responsibility exercised by the person, and the interest value of the work itself. The inclusion of salary as a hygiene factor rather than a motivator was subject to criticism but sales managers whose experience led them to believe that commission paid to their sales people was a powerful motivator in practice. Hertzberg accommodated their view to some extent by arguing that increased salary through higher commission was a motivator through the automatic recognition I gave to sales achievement. The sales person is fortunate that achievement is directly observable in terms of higher sales. However the degree of responsibility afforded to sales people varies a great deal. Opportunities for giving a greater degree of responsibility to sale people include giving authority to grant credit, discretion to offer discounts, and handing over responsibility for calling frequencies. The results of an experiment with a group f British sales people by Paul, Robertson and Hertzberg showed that greater responsibility given to sales people by such changes resulted in higher success. J W Jlocum (1986) Career stages approach to managing the salesforce; Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol 3, no.4.
I L, Densten (2002)...