Self Confidence

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According to the Central dogma of molecular biology, "DNA makes RNA makes protein." Translation is the process by which RNA makes protein. In the cell, DNA makes messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA travels to the ribosome which reads its sequence and makes protein coded to that sequence. In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the third stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process ofgene expression). In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) produced by transcription is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein. In bacteria, translation occurs in the cell's cytoplasm, where the large and small subunits of the ribosome are located, and bind to the mRNA. In eukaryotes, translation occurs across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process called vectorial synthesis. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of tRNAs with complementary anticodonsequences to that of the mRNA. The tRNAs carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide as the mRNA passes through and is "read" by the ribosome in a fashion reminiscent to that of a stock ticker and ticker tape. In many instances, the entire ribosome/mRNA complex bind to the outer membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulumand release the nascent protein polypeptide inside for later vesicle transport and secretion outside of the cell. Many types of transcribed RNA, such as transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and small nuclear RNA, do not undergo translation into proteins. Translation proceeds in four phases: initiation, elongation, translocation and termination (all describing the growth of the amino acid chain, or polypeptide that is the product of translation). Amino acids are brought to ribosomes and assembled into proteins. In activation, the correct amino acid is covalently bonded to the correct transfer RNA (tRNA). The amino acid is joined by its carboxyl group to the 3' OH of the tRNA...
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