Selective Breeding and Genetic Engineering

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Genetic engineering:

Positive aspects
CROPS:
•Enhanced tastes and quality
•Reduced maturation time
•Increased nutrients
•Improved resistance to diseases pests and herbicides. ••New products and growing techniques

ANIMALS
•Increased resistance productivity, hardiness and feed efficiency. ••Better yields of meat, eggs and milk
•Improved animal health
SOCIETY
• increased food security for growing populations

Negative aspects
CROPS:
•Overuse of genetic engineering can have a large and very bad impact on generations and extinction of different species ••Not only we are worried about the plant being modified but also by the farmer as the big laboratories that work on this issue usually create crops so they can benefit as much as possible from them. This could mean that they create crops that only last for one season. Or only get protected if you use their herbicides. Or were addicted to these •ANIMALS

•Mainly the problem is that animals GM to make our human life easier, are unable to retreat to their normal habitat, examples of this is: chickens that are afraid of light, sheep's and goats with shrunk legs.

Selective breeding:

Positive aspects
With selective breeding, the whole story changes. Selective breeding has one big difference from genetic engineering, and this is, there is no need to change any genes therefore even though GE and SB go to the same way “creating the most suitable organism in different environments for humans”. PLANTS:

•The genetics of the plants remain the same
•The plant have less risk to be dangerous in some way as it has been done using an organised mutation ••Plants will be “improved” and will remain same test ••Increased nutrients
•Improved resistance to diseases pests and herbicides. ••New products and growing techniques
ANIMALS
•Better yields of meat, eggs and milk
•Improved animal health

Negative aspects
PLANTS
•SB is not as accurate to GE therefore the solution might not be useful. ••Result of mixing carrot genes to tomato genes may ruin the existence of both living carrots and tomatoes. ••May be ethically unacceptable as it is “playing GOD” ••Biggest worry is that maybe a gene that has been placed from a potato from the north (protected from most pesticides) in to a carrot in Australia, this gene accidently jumps out and gets inside bat wheat, now this makes the bad wheat invincible and therefore it destroyed tons of other crops etc. •Animals:

•May make animals less conscious about their environment and may take them their self defence skills

Advantages and disadvantages.

The modification of the DNA structures due to agricultural activity can increase the growth rates and resistance to different diseases caused by “parasites” for example. This is extremely good as it can greatly increase the production of foods with the consumption of fewer resources which would be required to host/sustain the world's growing populations. These genetically modified crops could also reduce the usage of chemicals, such as fertilizers and pesticides, and therefore they would decrease the frequency of the damages caused by this chemical pollution. Domesticated animals can undergo the same mechanism. Genetic engineering can also increase the genetic diversity of species populations, especially those that are known as being endangered. Increase in genetic diversity would enable these organisms to evolve more efficiently that would allow better and faster adaptation to the new coming ecosystems due to climate change. It would also reduce the defencelessness of certain diseases produced by “pathogens”, as well as decrease the risk of inbreeding (breeding with family/close relatives) that would produce unproductive youths. Genetic engineering can be performed to increase to the efficiency of the ecosystem services provided by the other organisms.

Moral and ethical:

Genetic engineering goes against...
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