After the 13th Amendment passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865 ,slavery in America was abolished. All the Southern States agreed to the 14th Amendment by 1870, which guaranteed equal protection under the law to all citizens. Unfortunately, this “equal” was only an apparent status. Trough violence a terrorist gang named “Ku Kux Klan” kept black people from voting and supporting the govern , spreading danger and fear. The old white Redeemer govern regained power and found a way of modifying the Federal legislation in order to keep African-Americans from voting: gerrymandering ,pool taxes, property qualifications, complicated election procedures and literacy tests made it almost impossible for them and for all poor people to vote. With the “Grandfather clause” all those people who’s linear ancestors had been voting before 1867 didn’t have to take tests or pay: white people had their right again but most African American were exempted from voting. By 1883 segregation was no longer unconstitutional.
The doctrine “ separate but equal “in the United States Constitutional law justified between 1896 and 1965 segregation systems facilities . ( Plessy vs. Fergusson case) ” Jim Crow laws” soon regulated racial segregation. Public accommodations and services could have been separated by race. They quality of the each group’s facilities was supposed to remain equal, factually wasn’t. Some laws from various states:
* Schools were separated by race and the state, most black schools had less public funding. ( Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka)
* Theaters , Hotels , public baths, libraries, parks and restaurants . as busses and trains, were divided by race. * Many states forbade marriage between African Americans and whites. * It was forbidden to rent a house to any black person if this house was occupied by whites. * It was a crime for a white woman to sleep or spend the night in a room with a black man. *...