Typically there are three main parts of a seed: an embryo, nutrients for the embryo, and a seed coat (Seed, 2009). The embryo is the true essential of the seed. It contains the one cotyledon, or plant leaf, which under the right conditions will spark the initial seed germination (Seed, 2009). The nutrients for the embryo surround it. These nutrients are stored in endosperm. Endosperm has a heavier concentration in oil, starch, and proteins (Seed, 2009). These nutrients are used through the seeds dormancy to survive. By the seeds full maturity these nutrients have mostly been used up. The seed coat is protection for the seed to ensure the seen will be protected from any kind of damage.
The adaptive value of a seed all depends on the location of the plant and previous mutations of that species (Koning, 1994). For example some seed can go for extended periods of time with out water, or some seeds only open to extreme temperatures like a bitter freeze or a wild fire. These seed are adapted like this for maximum reproduction and for the best survival.
Germination is the process when a seed emerges from its dormancy (Seed Germination, 2009). The most common example of seed germination is the sprouting of a seed in its transition to seedling.
The three main factors for seed germination to occur are water, oxygen, and temperature (Seed Germination, 2009). Water amount is extremely important in that seed are usually exceptionally dry. The seed needs water to emerge and germinate, but contrary to that if a seed is drowned in water then it will absorb too much or be suffocated. Seeds also need oxygen to successfully germinate, but polluted oxygen can...