Security for Buildings

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SECURITY FOR BUILDINGS
Made Americans aware of the need for better ways to protect occupants, assets, and buildings from human aggressors (e.g. disgruntled employees, criminals, vandals, and terrorists). The 2001 terrorist attacks demonstrated the country's vulnerability to a wider range of threats and heightened public concern for the safety of workers and occupants in all Building Types. Many federal agencies responding to these concerns have adopted an overarching philosophy to provide appropriate and cost-effective protection for building occupants. The Facility Security Level document provides the procedure for determining the Facility Security Level (FSL) based on the characteristics of the facility and the occupancies they house. Four factors (mission criticality, symbolism, facility population, facility size and threat to tenant agencies) are quantified to determine the FSL. The FSL is determined by the Facility Security Committee (FSC), which consists of representatives of all Federal tenants in the facility, the security organization, and the owning or leasing department or agency. Once the FSL is established, the Design Basis Threat document provides the Design Basis Threat Scenario, Baseline Threat, Analytical Basis, Target Attractiveness and Outlook for twenty-nine "undesirable events" that range from Aircraft as a Weapon to Workplace Violence. This all-hazards approach provides a comprehensive review of the potential acts of violence the facility faces and provides guidance to assess the risk. The Physical Security Criteria document provides the overall basis for the threat and risk assessment. The Facility Security Committee is responsible for addressing the facility specific security issues and approving the implementation of security measures and practices. The implementation may be a combination of operational and physical security measures based on the FSL and the Level of Protection (LOP) that is deemed both appropriate and achievable. To facilitate the process, the document tabulates the requirements for all the individual security criteria categories relative to the desired LOP. The security criteria categories are further correlated to additional Appendix information and to the specific undesirable events that the protective measures are intended to address. This presentation of the protective design criteria helps illustrate the all-hazard risk based approach. The basic components of the physical security measures to address an explosive threat considers the establishment of a protected perimeter, the prevention of progressive collapse, the design of a debris mitigating façade, the isolation of internal explosive threats that may evade detection through the screening stations or may enter the public spaces prior to screening and the protection of the emergency evacuation, rescue and recovery systems. These protective measures are generally achieved through principles of structural dynamics, nonlinear material response and ductile detailing. Levels of Protection (LOP) are defined for Building Damage, Door and Glazing Hazards and injury to personnel and range from "Very Low" to "High". The minimum antiterrorism standards provide guidance on the measures for achieving the "Very Low" and "Low" levels of protection. For the "Medium" and "High" levels of protection, guidance is provided in UFC 4-020-01, "DoD Security Engineering Facilities Planning Manual" and in UFC 4-020-02, "DoD Security Engineering Facilities Design Manual" (FOUO). UFC 4-010-01 includes 22 mandatory standards, which include in addition to the specification of standoff distances, the provision of unobstructed spaces around the protected buildings, the control of drive-up or drop-off areas and access roadways, restrictions related to parking beneath buildings or on rooftops, the prevention of progressive collapse, structural isolation of building sections, the protection of building overhangs, the design of a debris mitigating façade,...
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