‘No security without development and no development without security’. To what extent do you agree with this statement?
In its 200 year history Haiti has had 32 coup d’états. It presently languishes at 149 out of 182 in the latest Human Development Index (UNDP, HDR 2009) and is on a list of 26 “fragile states” (White, 2009). It seems highly probable that the resultant lack of security of government has hampered development there. It also seems highly probable that had Haiti developed a stable economy and experienced resultant, tangible improvements in the quality of life, then there would have been less impetus for such violent, revolutionary change in government over its history. Its misery has been compounded by the recent devastating earthquake on 12 January 2010 but the situation there was already bleak. It is clear that in order for development to occur there must be security on several fronts: security in the due process of law, security of land tenure, food security, security from the threats of conflict to name but four. Conversely, development and the related gains in quality of life described by numerous indicators such as increases in GDP per capita to reduction in infant mortality, from increased adult literacy to wider enfranchisement in transparent, fair elections will in turn create a more stable, secure environment in which people can achieve greater standards of living than barely just meeting their basic needs. It is necessary to examine this issue at a variety of scales and on a variety of fronts.
Collier (2008) has stated that he feels four causes of poverty are particularly important to overcome if development is to occur. The first and most important is conflict. A major part of this cause of poverty is the loss of security experienced by those in conflict zones. He states that 73% of what he terms the “Bottom Billion” (poorest billion people in the world) have experienced or are experiencing war in their lifetime. He describes...
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