Presented By Md. Ashraful Islam Director, SEC
Part-A: Investment fundamentals Understanding investment Some definitions Sources and types of risk Risk-return trade-off in different types of securities Important considerations in investment process Part-B: Securities Analysis Securities analysis concept and types Framework of fundamental securities analysis Intrinsic valuation & relative valuation Part-C: Portfolio Management Portfolio concept Modern Portfolio Theory: Markowitz Portfolio Theory Determination of optimum portfolio Single-Index model, Multi-Index model Capital Market Theory Portfolio performance measurement
Investment is commitment of fund to one or more assets that
is held over some future time period. Investing may be very conservative as well as aggressively speculative. Whatever be the perspective, investment is important to improve future welfare. Funds to be invested may come from assets already owned, borrowed money, savings or foregone consumptions. By forgoing consumption today and investing the savings, investors expect to enhance their future consumption possibilities by increasing their wealth. Investment can be made to intangible assets like marketable securities or to real assets like gold, real estate etc. More generally it refers to investment in financial assets.
Investments refers to the study of the investment process,
generally in financial assets like marketable securities to maximize investor’s wealth, which is the sum of investor’s current income and present value of future income. It has two primary functions: analysis and management.
Whether Investments is Arts or Science?
Financial assets: These are pieces of paper (or electronic) evidencing claim on some issuer. Marketable securities: Financial assets that are easily and cheaply traded in organized markets. Portfolio: The securities held by an investor taken as a unit. Expected return: Investors invest with the hope to earn a return by holding the investment over a certain time period. Realized return: The rate of return that is earned after maturity of investment period. Risk: The chance that expected return may not be achieved in reality.
Risk-Free Rate of Return: A return on riskless asset, often proxied by the rate of return on treasury bills. Risk–Adverse Investor: An investor who will not assume a given level of risk unless there is an expectation of adequate compensation for having done so. Risk Premium: The additional return beyond risk fee rate that is required for making investment decision in risky assets.
Passive Investment Strategy: A strategy that determines initial investment proportions and assets and make few changes over time. Active Investment Strategy: A strategy that seeks to change investment proportions and assets in the belief that profits can be made. Efficient Market Hypothesis(EMH): The proposition that security markets are efficient, in the sense that price of securities reflect their economic value based on price sensitive information. Weak-form EMH Semi-strong EMH Strong EMH
Face value or Par value or Stated value: The value at which corporation issue its shares in case of common share or the redemption value paid at maturity in case of bond. New stock is usually sold at more than par value, with the difference being recorded on balance sheet as “capital in excess of par value”. Book Value: The accounting value of equity as shown in the balance sheet. It is the sum of common stock outstanding, capital in excess of par value, and retained earnings. Dividing this sum or total book value by the number of common shares outstanding produces the book value par share. Although it plays an important role in investment decision, market value par share is the critical item of interest to investors....