Sector analisys : Drinking water and sanitation in India|
Social Enterpreneurship : Initiating Social Change|
Bruno LUSSATO & Antoine GERARD|
[Tapez le résumé du document ici. Il s'agit généralement d'une courte synthèse du document. Tapez le résumé du document ici. Il s'agit généralement d'une courte synthèse du document.]| Table of content
Introduction: Current state of affairs
Poor quality of water is a real problem in India as we estimate at approximately 37.7 million the number of Indian people that are affected by waterborne diseases annually. This is huge and in addition to that, 1.5 million children die of diarrhoea each year. This is estimated to engender an economic loss of $600 million a year. One of the other main concerns is chemical contamination: 1,95,813 habitation suffer bad quality of water in India.
This sector analysis has the pretention to capture important insights necessary to fully understand the problematic. To do so, the first step will be to collect secondary data about the sector itself and about the different actors being the Center, the States, the population, both rural and urban, and the existing market within which various actors are present. The second step will be to collect primary data in order to bring new insights from the field to the research. Depending on the first step, we will try to gather primary data from the most various possible sources. Afterwards, our task will be to draw the situation of the sector in the most realistic and insightful way possible in order to create a realistic strategy for a Social Enterprise to enter the domain.
PART ONE: Secondary research
1. Definition of Actors
Providing clean drinking water is a priority in India according to the Constitution. Indeed Article 47 reads that the States are the only ones entitled (and obliged to) to providing drinking water and improving health standards. In turn, states have the authority to give the responsibility of local supply of water to Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs).
“The role of the Centre is to allocate funds and guide investments, encourage research, develop human resources through training and other capacity-building efforts, promote water quality monitoring, provide guidelines for various programmes and ensure the implementation of the water supply programmes. “
One can easily notice that the government has at least tried to do a lot to provide safe drinking water with many programmes. Tough, Despite the large amount of money invested by the government, safe drinking water is still a front burner issue in India. There have been many transitions in the government policies since Independence. At first they had putted an emphasis on physical infrastructures. After that one could notice a transition to a more socio technological approach (and not only technological anymore). Thus people were goaded into participating a lot. Nowadays, the Ministry of water and sanitation administers the National Rural Drinking Water programme (NRDWP), and the Total Sanitation Campaign. As mentioned above, these programmes are providing support to the States which are responsible for implementing rural domestic water supply and sanitation schemes. To ensure the sustainability of the systems, from 1999 onwards the Center tried to incentive community participation in the process of implementing rural drinking water supply.Sector Reform went from “Government oriented supply driven approach” to “People oriented demand responsive approach”. The Twelfth Five Year Plan report of the working group on Rural Domestic Water and Sanitation, clearly highlight this shift and other declared goals such as an increase in coverage of water pipe, the involvement of local communities, the convergence between the different State agencies concerned, the strengthen of the institutional structure by...