The education policy of Malaysia was started since 1956 and it was before the independence of Malaya Peninsula. Then the policy was developed through four major phases, which were Razak Report era, 1956, Rahman Talib Report era, 1960, the Cabinet Report 1979, and the Education Bill 1995. Razak report, 1956
Malaysian second Prime Minister, Tun Abdul Razak as the Minister of Education at that time, had chaired the education committee 1956 which was formed to devise a national education system. The committee was created to devise a national education system, to encourage the use of Malay as the language of instruction in schools and ensure the protection of the language and culture of other ethnic groups. Recommendations of the Razak report 1956 became the starting point for the Education Ordinance 1957. It was important as an educational framework for independent Malaya and eventually Malaysia. The following was the major recommendations contained in the Razak Report: * Create School Board of Governors for all schools, the primary and secondary. * Schools were classified and indentified into: (1) private/independent school which will not receive assistance from public funds; (2) government-aided; (3) public; and (4) national-type (sekolah jenis kebangsaan) the medium of instruction can be Mandarin, Tamil, or English. * Malay and English are compulsory subjects in both primary and secondary schools; other languages may be taught based upon need and demand. The reason of teaching English is that no secondary school pupil shall be at a disadvantage in the matter of either of employment or of higher education in Malaya or overseas as long as it is necessary to use the English language for these purposes. * Form one scheme of service for teachers, and all teachers will undergo the same training process. This mean that all teachers should be organized into one professional service on one national salary scale with contributory pension rights and with individual freedom of transfer from one employer to another. During that time, most of the teachers are with their own salary scale and with little or no opportunity for transfer or for promotion from one grade to another. * The creation of the school inspectorate.
In addition, the Razak Report had other objectives within the context of nation-building. The example of the objectives are the promotion of national integration and unity through a common education system and the creation of a society that is disciplined, skilled, tolerant, liberal and progressive (Jawan, 2003). Rahman Talib Report, 1960
After the 1959 general elections, Rahman Talib chaired the education committee. The formation of this committee was to implement one of the recommendations contained in the Razak Report that required a study be undertaken not later than 1959. On the other hand, the committee has some recommendations of its own even though the committee under Rahman Talib was generally satisfied with the overall implementation of recommendations contained in the Razak Report. Some of the recommendations of Rahman Talib Report were as follow; * Schools and universities use Malay as the language of instruction. * Free education in national primary school beginning in 1962. The students who educated in national primary school will not need to pay for the educational fees. * Transition class for students from vernacular schools who wish to switch to national secondary school where Malay was the language of instruction. * Give emphasis to vocational and technical education in order to produce skilled labor. * Give emphasis to moral and religious education for spiritual development. The Rahman Talib Report became the basis of the Education Act 1961. Then the National Education Policy 1961 arose from the Razak Report, 1965 and the Rahman Talib Report, 1961. Among the major strategies contained in the National Education Policy were as follow: * All...