Second Language Acquisition and Age Impact on its Acquisition Ika Ulil M
Children acquire language since they were born. They communicate with their parents. Furthermore, children and parents interact with each other using a language that we often call the first language or mother tongue. At an early age, children are only learning one language that is the mother tongue. By age and speech development, children improve to acquire a second language from the school or the environment around them. In terms of speed of langgauge acquisition, children are factorized by both the child and the child’s learning environment. Therefore, it is important to understand how children acquire second language. This paper is provided some theories that is covered what is known about second langauge acquisition on children. After providing theories, some models for second language acquisition that is done by researcher to explain the development of second language acquisition will be discussed in this paper. The paper then explores two common ways that is used usually by children to learn second language. The paper then explain several stages that happened while children acquire second language. At the last point, the researcher try to give some impacts that may be occur in their acquisition based on age. The concludes with summarizing all of theories that is covered it, simplify the explanation of what is known by second language acquisition, what is the impact of secon language acquisition based on their age and the benefit we get for understanding their acquisition of language. Key words : children, second language acquisition, understanding 1. Introduction
Language is one of the most important things in the world. Language is the bridge of our communication. In the other words, we communicate through language with each other that is understood by the speaker and the hearer. As a human, we acquire language since we were born. At a young age, children acquire language may more than one. They acquire their first language with their parents. Then, at the same time, they will acquire their second language. Second language acquisition has been done by research for several decades. Research shows that most young children are capable of learning two languages and that bilingualism discuss cognitif, cultural, and economic advantages (Bialystok, 2001 ; Genesee, 2004 ; Hakuta & Pease-Alvarez, 1992). In Tucker’s view, most children throughout the world learn to speak two or more languages (1999). Indeed, Grosjean further states that bilingualism is present in just about every country in the world, in all classes of society, and in all age groups (1982). Meanings, children have already capable to acquire second language in the all age of them. Newport further states that by the time children are of school age, they have an amazing language ability and effortless acquisition seemingly (1991). Therefore, all of those statement come in one conclusion that second language acquisition done by children will get higher level of acquiring as same as their age in years. 2. Some Theoretical Views
Larsen-Freeman and Long (1991: 227) state that “at least forty theories” of SLA have been proposed” and it is my contention that none of these attempts to explain SLA present a thorough explanation for the phenomenon. Furthermore, Clark in Tabors statement clarify that even young children who are learning a second language bring all of the knowledge about language learning they have acquired through developing their first language (1997). He continued that children who are in second language learning situation have to be sufficiently motivated to start learning a new language (1997: 81). Moreover, Bialystok and Hakuta believe that when we learn a new language, we also learning both new vocabulary and grammar. According to these, we are also learning new ways of organizing concepts, new ways of thinking, and ways of...
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