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Groups involved in Systems Development

Systems Development Life Cycle & Prototyping

Organizational Groups
Senior management Professional experts Middle management Supervisory management Factory/clerical workers Funding and support Legal, procurement, and

organizational expertise Entry and support Entry & critical support Information, job & task details

Information Systems Groups
Senior management Project management Senior analysts Systems analysts Coordinates system development and planning Manages a specific project Coordinates systems analysts, designers, & procurement personnel Determine new system requirements, concepts and procedures Technical realization of new system


Approaches to Systems Development (Methodologies)
Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
System under study is developed in stages Extensive use of professional development personnel

Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Process
Planning Requirements Analysis Understand & document the existing system Determine requirements for new system Systems Design Develop overall plan for new system System Acquisition Acquire necessary hardware & software System Implementation Build & put new system into use

Building small models of some elements and gradually expanding them from user experience

Extensive use of professional DP and 4GL tools Used especially for decision support systems

Alternate Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
Front end is prototyped; back end traditional process

End-User Computing
End user takes primary initiative in development process


Traditional SDLC vs. Prototyping
Perception and expression of need

(User and/or Developer plus 4GL Tools)



Identify requirements Requirements

Requirements analysis

Develop first prototype First prototype


User feedback System acquisition Revise and enhance

System implementation

Improved prototype

Systems design

Implement and use

What is Prototyping?
Creating the system in little, a version with certain functions in essential operating condition in order to experiment with the requirements and design of the final product

What is Prototyping?
Building small models of certain critical elements and gradually expanding on these basic elements based on experience Extensive use of professional IS, CASE, DBMS, and 4GL tools Used especially for EUC and decision support systems

Wind Tunnel


Real World System


Real World System


What is Prototyping?
A live working system (not just an idea on paper) A system that can itself become the production system An experimental system built by trial and error A system built quickly and inexpensively

Traditional SDLC vs. Prototyping

Request for Application

Design specifications
Months have passed.

Review of specs

Months/years have passed. Changes

Try application

Code and test

Use the application

More months have passed.


Real World System

Prototyping vs. Traditional SDLC

SDLC vs Prototyping Circumstances favoring SDLC
User and developer work closely together to develop basic requirements. Days pass.

Developer builds initial prototype.

Days pass.

User and developer work with prototypes to refine and enhance system.

Developer revises and enhances prototype.

There is significant experience with the type of system to be built Important system features can be easily identified Data requirements can be identified in advance Management requires a comprehensive "picture" of the new system before giving approval The development staff is not experienced with 4GL's or prototyping

System can be used within months.


SDLC vs Prototyping Circumstances favoring Prototyping
Users do not have a feel for the information or systems capabilities...
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