Scott Hill

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Blueprint Of Life

1. Evidence of evolution suggests that the mechanisms of inheritance, accompanied by selection, allow change over many generations

* Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: - Changes in physical conditions in the environment
- Changes in chemical conditions in the environment
- Competition for resources

Physical Conditions| Chemical Conditions| Competition for resources| Change in physical conditions such as:- Temperature- Wind conditions- Availability of water| Chemicals that can affect the evolution of species:- Oxygen- Carbon Dioxide- pH- Salts| Competition for resources between species for:- Food- Water- Habitat- Mates- Results in the elimination of a competing species or the evolution to occupy different niches/ resources| E.G Ancient KangarooIncreased aridity led to a decrease in rainforests and an increase in open woodlands and grasslands as the Australian environment went from cool and wet to hot and dry. This change in physical environment led to the evolution of the Modern day Kangaroo from the Ancient KangarooAncient Kangaroo: small in size, generalized molarsModern Day Kangaroo: large in size, eats grasses using high crested molar teeth| E.G Copper MiningCopper mining can release wastes into the surrounding areas and these wastes can be toxic and kill many plants. If a plant has natural tolerance to waste mineral (e.g. copper tolerance), then it will survive, reproduce and pass on this favourable trait| E.G Fruit Fly Species have evolved to different types of fruit trees. Possible if different flowering and fruit times on each tree type for breeding cycles in the fruit fly can eventually lead to two distinct species (different fruit fly for each fruit tree). Specialise on slightly different resources to avoid direct competition|

* Describe, using specific examples, how the theory of evolution is supported by the following areas of study: - Paleontology, including fossils that have been considered as transitional forms - Biogeography

- Comparative Embryology
- Comparative Anatomy
- Biochemistry

Source of evidence| Definition| Evidence| Specific Example| Paleontology| The study of fossils| - Fossils in undisturbed rock formations show a similar sequence- living things arose in a particular sequence/order- Transitional forms of fossils that represent successive change in organisms over a long period of time| - Early horses show animals with four toes and a narrow cheeck span, compared with modern day horses, which have only one toe and a large cheeck span.- Transitional forms of horses show 3 toes with an intermediate cheeck span| Biogeography| The study of geographical distribution of organisms both living and extinct across the world| - Common ancestors while continents were joined (Gondwana) before continental drift occurred- Evolution occurred in species once they became isolated| - Flightless Bird- Distribution of Australian Emu's, South African Ostriches, New Zealand Kiwi's, and South American Rheas all share similarities suggesting a common ancestor | Comparative Embryology| The comparison of the development stages of different species| - Species that are closely related show similarities in their embryonic development- Similarities in structure of developing embryos can be used to support the idea that organisms have descended from a common ancestor| - Fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles and mammals all show the presence of gill slits and tails with distinct muscle blocks during early embryonic life | Comparative Anatomy| The study of similarities and differences in the structure (anatomy) of living organisms to determine evolutionary relatedness| - Structures that share common features (homologous structures) have some basic plan in their structure, but with modifications to perform different functions. Similarities are evidence of a common ancestor and modifications are evidence of evolution| - The...
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