Scientific Writing

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Anne Vierimaa
ASSIGNMENT A OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING

Scientific Writing
CENTRIA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES
Master programme in International Business Management
October 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION1

2 BACKGROUND THEORY1

3 QUESTIONS AND METHODS 2

4 CONTRIBUTIONS2
4.1 ARTICLE A2
4.1.1 What are the background theories on article A?2
4.1.2 What are the research questions and methods on article A?34.1.3 What is the contribution of article A?3
4.1.4 What conclusions are made of article A?3
4.2 ARTICLE B4
4.2.1 What are the background theories on article B?4
4.2.2 What are the research questions and methods on article B?44.2.3 What is the contribution of article B?4
4.2.4 What conclusions are made of article B?5

5 CONCLUSIONS5

REFERENCES7

1 INTRODUCTION

This paper is an assignment A of Scientific Writing course which is part of MBA studies in CENTRIA University of Applied Sciences in Kokkola unit. I order to be able to pass the course a research report is required to be written. Two articles were given to be studied and analyzed. The articles were analyzed by using a Text analysing method. The report needed to follow the guidelines and structure which were taught during the lessons. The two given articles are both from scientifically highly appreciated magazines. The first article A is from the Administrative Science Quarterly; Sep 1990; 35, 3. The headline of the article is: ‘Top-Management-Team Tenure and Organizational Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Managerial Discretion ‘and the writers are Sydney Finkelstein from University of Southern California and Donald C. Hambrick from Columbia University. The second article B is from the Academy of Management Review; 1984, Vol 9, No 2, 193-206. The headline of this is: ‘Upper Echelons: The Organization as a Reflection of Its Top Managers’ and the writers are Donald C. Hambrick and Phyllis A. Mason from Columbia University.

2 BACKGROUND THEORIES

The background of this paper is that Master’s level is advanced studies and thou a student of this level is required to be able critically evaluate theories and apply them to create new knowledge. Student of MBA level should show that she/he understands the requirements for scientific writing and can identify different types of scientific writing. Student needs to know the phases of research and research reporting. Students must be able to use references and is capable of producing scientific text and accompanying reference list. 3 QUESTIONS AND METHODS

The purpose of this research report is to study given two scientific articles and identify them from the following points: What are the background theories? What are the research questions and methods? What are the contributions and what are the conclusions? There are four different types of qualitative research methods. They are: interview, observation, case study and text analysis also known as a content analysis. The method that was used to analyze these research materials of sources, the two given articles, was text analysis and the approach was qualitative. (Veal 2006, 39.)

4 CONTRIBUTIONS

The two given articles A and B both handled ‘upper-echelon theory’ of Hambrick, Donald C. and Finkelstein, S. (1987) but from different perspective. Below these findings has been represented.

4.1 ARTICLE A

The first article is from the Administrative Science Quarterly; Sep 1990; 35, 3. The headline of the article is: ‘Top-Management-Team Tenure and Organizational Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Managerial Discretion ‘and the writers are Sydney Finkelstein from University of Southern California and Donald C. Hambrick from Columbia University.

4.1.1 What are the research questions and methods on article A?

This research uses an upper-echelon framework to seek answers to the followings: What is the effect of top- managerial-team tenure with help of...
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