Scientific Method and Research

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1- The _________ variable is the presumed cause of another variable while the ________ variable is the presumed effect.
*a) independent; dependent
b) dependent; independent
c) independent; extraneous
d) independent; mediating
2- A(n) ______________ variable is one that is not under the control of the researcher but that may be influencing the outcome of the experiment.
a) independent
*b) extraneous
c) mediating
d) moderating
3-A researcher is interested in the effects of teaching styles on learning. She randomly assigns students to either a lecture-based class taught at 8:00 a.m. or a discussion-based class taught at 2:00 p.m. Her results reveal that students in the discussion-based class performed better than those in the lecture-based class. In this example the time that the class is taught could be considered a(n) _________ variable, making it impossible to establish a causal connection between teaching method and classroom performance.

a) independent
b) dependent
*c) extraneous
d) mediating

7) Several recent studies have found that moderate drinkers of alcohol have lowered levels of heart disease risk than non-drinkers. It has been hypothesized that moderate drinking may reduce stress which in turn may lead to a reduction in the risk of heart disease. In this example lowered stress levels would be considered a(n) __________ variable.

a) independent
b) dependent
c) extraneous
*d) mediating

8) A(n) ___________ variable specifies how a causal relationship between two variables is different depending on a particular situation or circumstance. For example, if a researcher finds that a new experimental drug is effective in alleviating depression in young adult but not older adults.

a) mediating
*b) moderating
c) extraneous
d) independent

9) According to your text there are three conditions for making justified claims of cause and effect. Which of the following is NOT one of these conditions:
a) the independent and dependent variables must be related
*b) the dependent variable must be manipulated by the researcher
c) the independent variable must precede the dependent variable
d) no other plausible explanations between the independent and dependent variables
should exist
11) What does it mean to say that an observation is "objective?”
a) the observation is empirical
b)it is done by a trained, professional scientist
c)the observation has a rational basis
*d)it is unaffected by the observer’s personal biases

12) Experimental research, as opposed to qualitative and nonexperimental quantitative research, allows us to make statements about cause-and-effect relationships. Why is this so?
a)Experimental research involves studying how two variables covary.
b)Experimental research uses statistical analysis.
*c)In experimental research, we can observe the effects of manipulating variables under controlled conditions. d) Experimental research uses objective observations. 1. According to your text, what is probably the most commonly cited disadvantage of using laboratory experiments to learn about human behavior? 2. *a)because they tend to be done in highly controlled settings, their results may...
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