Scientific Management -vs.- the Hawthorne Studies

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When looking into management objectives there are several different methods of conducting research. A couple of the methods used are Scientific Management and the Hawthorne Studies. The Scientific Management approach aims towards the training, teaching, and development of the employees to increase productivity of the organization; whereas the Hawthorne Studies show that people have a tendency to behave differently (have an increased output in productivity) when they know they are being observed. Both styles have increased productivity as the end result, but the question remains which is the better method? Frederick W. Taylor,the man also known as the father of Scientific Management, wrote a book called The Principles of Scientific Management (1911). In this book he explained that “The principle objective of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee.” Taylors’ explanation of how to make this happen is the basis for how many organizations are structured today. Taylor focused on time management as being a vital aspect to a company’s productivity levels. His studies broke down the process of production and analyzed how to effectively shorten the time each part of the process took. This increased productivity by making each individual part of the group maximize their output of productivity by its management teams recognizing the maximum potential of the system itself. The Hawthorne Studies were performed between 1923 and 1933. These studies began an approach to management styles that focused mainly on the behavioral aspects of management. The first study was conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric and had some different results as to what was expected. The initial study was supposed to show the effects of changes in lighting and productivity. Workers were put into two different groups and the lighting was increased in one of the groups. To the surprise of...
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