Scientific Management

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Nowadays in the modern world of innovations and rapid technological development the science of management has become an important part of every business company and organization. It is really hard to imagine well-known companies such as Apple, McDonalds or Tesco without implementing the theories of management in their day-to-day practice as it became a tool of organizing, planning, motivating and controlling internal and external resources (Boddy, 2008). One of the scientists who made a huge impact towards the establishment of management as a science is Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who is mainly known as an author of Scientific Management theory (Taylorism). According to Blake, A. and Moseley, J. (2010) ‘The principles of Scientific Management’, which is explaining Taylor’s theory, is now used in different industries and spheres in order to improve worker productivity and help managers to motivate their staff in a more effective way. This essay is going to critically evaluate the impact of Taylor’s management ideas by providing examples of their implementation in the past and examine their actuality and significance in the modern world. It would also compare and contrast the concepts of Taylor with his main critics in order to assess the influence of Taylorism on the global environment of management. To understand the theory of Scientific Management it is important to know exactly what is meant by the word ‘scientific’. By F.W. Taylor this term means an opinion that is based on a proven fact or statement rather than on personal philosophy are: the development of workers, cooperation with them and ideas or a guesswork (Locke, 1982). The main principles of Taylorism are: the development of workers, cooperation with them, ensuring their working quality as well as providing equal responsibilities between employers and employees and of course the division of labour, which is probably one of the greatest inventions of Taylor (Blake & Moseley, 2010). All of them together has formed a concept of the theory which can be set out in a statement: increasing the productivity within the organization could be achieved by working smart, not hard and this is something which was approved by Taylor’s research and has been something he was focusing on (Drucker, 2001). The efficiency of a ‘working smart’ approach is questionable and can be reasonably argued but it is hard to disagree with the benefits that can be gained from the division of labour in the organization. Task allocation is a management tool of simplifying the working process and leads to a higher quality of the performance. One of the aspects included into the Taylor’s Scientific Management theory, which he was mainly criticized for by other famous scientist, and experts in the science of management, was the way of motivating people (Boddy, 2008). Taylorism argues that the only way of employee’s motivation is through monetary incentives without paying attention to the social needs of people (Blake & Moseley, 2010). This is now considered to be as one of the biggest misapprehensions of F.W.Taylor during the implementation of his Scientific Management model. According to Fry, L. (1976) Taylor identified people as being naturally lazy and that is why he did not see any other way of motivating them when explaining and interpreting his management model theory. This was further added by McGregor, D. (1906-1964) in his well-known motivation theory that was mainly based on the concepts and thoughts of F.W.Taylor. Through the history of management as a science Taylor was one of the figures whose ideas were argued and were not fully understood by his critics (Drucker, 2001). In this paragraph I would to focus on the ideas of Henry Mintzberg and the reasons why did he critisise Taylor’s scientific attitude towards management. The main idea Mintzberg has been always skeptical about is the obsession of Taylor with efficiency which allows the entity, employers, employees,...
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