Modern managers use many of the practices, principal, and techniques developed from earlier concepts and experience. In 1975, Raymond E. Miles wrote Theories of Management: Implications for organizational behavior and development. In it, he evaluated management includes classical, human relations, and human resources management. __The development of management thought has been evaluated in nature under the following four parts: 1. Pre-Scientific Management Era (before 1880)
2. Classical management Era (1880-1930)
3. Neo-classical Management Era (1930-1950)
4. Modern Management era(1950-on word)
Classical Management: includes
1. Scientific Management School
2. Administration Management school
3. Bureaucracy Management.
Neo- classical Management: includes
1. Human relation school
2. Behavioral Management School
Modern Management: includes
1. Social system school
2. Decision theory school
3. Quantitative Management school
4. System Management school
5. Contingency Management school.
Bureaucracy Management: Max Weber known as father of modern Sociology analyzed bureaucracy as the most logical & structure for large organization. Features of Bureaucracy
Rational authority: This is based on law, procedures, rules, and so on. Positional authority: Positional authority of superior over a subordinate stems from legal authority. Charismatic authority: Charismatic authority stems from the personal qualities of an individual. Principal of Bureaucracy
1. Clearly defined and specialized functions.
2. Use of legal authority;
3. Hierarchical form;
4. Written rules and procedures;
5. Technically trained bureaucrats;
6. Appointment to positions based on technical expertise; 7. Promotions based on competence;
8. Clearly defined career paths.
Frederick Taylor, known as the father of Scientific Management, Published Principals of Scientific Management , in which he proposed work methods designed to increase worker productivity. Scientific Management focuses on worker and machine relationships. Organizational productivity can be increased by increasing the efficiency of production processes. The efficiency perspective is concerned with creating job that economizes on time, human energy, and other productive resources. Job are designed so that each worker has a specified, well controlled task that can be performed as instructed. Principal of scientific management
1. Replacement of old rule of thumb method.
2. Scientific selecting and training.
3. Labor management co-operation.
4. Maximizes output.
5. Equal division of responsibility.
Perspective of scientific Management: There are four scientific management systems: 1. Develop a science for each element of the job to replace old rule of thumb method. 2. Scientifically select employees and then train them to do the job as described in step 1. 3. Supervise employees to make sure they follow the prescribed method for performing their job. 4. Continue to plan the work but use worker to actually get the work done. Administrative Management
Administrative Management emphasizes the manager and the functions of management. Henri fayol known as the father of modern Management. He wrote General and Industrial Management. His five function of managers were plan, organize, command, co-ordinate, and control. Principal of administrative management
1. Division of labor
2. Authority & responsibility,
4. Unity of command,
5. Unity of direction,
6. Subordination of individual interests to general interest, 7. Remuneration of personnel,
9. Scalar chain,
12. Stability of tenure,
13. Initiative and
14. Esprit de crops (union of strength).
Mary parker Follett’s concepts included in the administration...